MSW's Students (2007-2009), Christ College, Bangalore, India

Thursday, March 27, 2008

Community Organisation Notes

UNIT II HISTORY OF COMMUNITY ORGANISATION:

Contents:

Aims and objectives

Introduction

Philosophy of community organization

History of community organization- USA.,UK and India

Gandhian Approach to Community organization

Models of community organization.

Approaches to community organization

Overview of Rothman Model.

2.1Aims and objectives:

This unit aims at familiarizing you with the historical development and philosophy of community organization. You will also be introduced to different approaches and various models of community organization with a special reference to Indian situation. After studying this unit you should be able to:

Outline the History of community organization.

Discuss the philosophy of community organization

Analyze various approaches and models of community organization.

Discuss the spirit of community organization in India and develop a positive attitude towards developmental efforts in India.

Critically examine the past efforts and discuss the emergence of new trends in community organization.

2.2INTRODUCTION:

The previous chapters have given you a birds eye view on the concept of community organization and its various principles. As you are already aware that, It has been practiced as a method of social work in the western countries; especially in England and USA. However, Little has been written about the history of community organization. Community organization is a process and is all about solving the present day today problems of common interests by way of adopting democratic principles and peoples participation. People have used this method in the past and have attained desired results. Thus, it is important for the students of community organization to understand the past, draw lessons from it and develop and experiment new models and methods required to work with community.

In this chapter, we will be dealing with the History of community organization in England, USA and provide you with a brief idea about the community organization practice in India. In the later part of the chapter, we will also discuss some of the models and approaches of community organization..

WHY SHOULD WE STUDY HISTORY?

We can learn a lot from the history, that variety of social- change groups faced with long odds and with slim beginnings won out in the end. History makes us clear that slow times need not mean the death of hope. But lends us patience while teaching us persistence. The strategies adopted in the past provide us concrete lessons on tactics and approaches allowing each generation to build on the knowledge of its predecessors. It is all about the problems the people experienced and the solution they achieved.

In short, history sensitizes us to the problems and possibilities of change, provides concrete advice for the present-day action, and sustain our action with the hope and pride that comes from learning of past experience. Therefore, the study of the History of community organization becomes essential for a social worker.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION:

The term "community organization covers a series of activities at the community level aimed at bringing about desired improvement in the social well being of individuals, groups and neighborhoods". Community organizing is about creating a

Democratic instrument to bring about sustained social change. According to Murray G.Ross, " Community organization is a process by which a community identifies needs and takes action, and in doing so... develops co-operative attitudes and practices."

2.3. PHILOSOPHY OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION:

The early attempts in community organization were an outcome of the serious problems i.e. problems of unemployment, poverty etc. faced by the communities. Thus grew up many organisations and social agencies to provide support to the community. Soon, it was realized that all these efforts need to be co-ordinated and streamlined so as to avoid duplicity of work and to reduce the gap in the delivery of services to the community. At one point of time we might ask, What has been the driving force behind all these efforts that prompted the people of Good will to render services to the community? Let us look at the Philosophy of Community Organization, which may throw some light on this theme.

The fundamental aspect of the community organizations is the principle of " Co-operative spirit" which promotes the people to unite together to address a common issue.

Community organization recognizes the spirit of democratic values and principles and community organization is about is creating democratic involvement.

Organizing is about empowering. When people unite together, barring all discriminations and get involved in the community organizations, they develop confidence. This empowerment comes when people learn skills to help themselves and others. The collective action helps in community building.

The community organization recognizes the power of individual. It believes, through the collective strength of the people, better teamwork and adopting scientific methods can make comprehensive social problems.

Another Philosophy is that of coordination. It is concerned with the adjustments and inter-relations of the forces in the community life for a common welfare.

Community organization is therefore, is a continuous process in which adjustments are made and remade to keep pace with the changing conditions of community life.

2.4. HISTORY OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION:

In a broad sense we can say wherever people have lived together, some form of organisations has emerged. These informal associations of people always tried to do good to the people in need and protect the rights of the society. On the contrary the history talks about the formal organizations which were set up for the welfare of the community. The first efforts at community organization for social welfare were initiated in England to overcome the acute problem of poverty, which led to beggary.

The first effort of its kind was the Elizabethan poor law (1601) in England, which was set up to provide services to the needy. Another important landmark in the history of community organization is the formation of London Society of organizing charitable relief and repressing mendicancy and the Origin of the settlement house Movement in England during 1880.

In fact, these movements had a major impact in the United States of America. In 1880 the Charities organization was set up to put rational order in the area of charity and relief. The major community organization activities in the United States could be classified in to three periods:

The Charity organization period. 1870-1917:

This era is the beginnings in social welfare in USA. The first citywide (COS) Charity organization Society was established in the Buffalo in 1877 in USA. This movement was started with the influence of London Charity organization established in 1869. In USA, Rev.S.H.Gurteen, an English priest who had an association with London Charity association and had moved to Baffalo in 1873 gave the leadership to this movement an English priest who had an association with London Charity association and had moved to Baffalo in 1873. With in a short span of six years the COS had reached to more than 25 American cities.

Charity organization was concerned about two things:

Providing adequate personal services to families and individuals in need

Take steps to address the issues/problems in social welfare.

Apart from this services the COS also took initiatives in promoting co-operation among the various welfare agencies. From this movement of charity organization emerged many other such service oriented organisations i.e. Social service exchange, Community welfare councils, councils of social agencies

2. The rise of Federation 1917 to 1935

It is period where we can see the growth and development of chests and councils. It started with the rise of war chests in 1917 and ended with the enactment of social security act, which set the stage for development of the public welfare programs in 1935. A large number of chests and councils came up after world war 1.The American Association for Community Organization was organized in 1918 as the national agency for chests and councils and it later became known as community chests and councils of (CCC) America. The Cincinnati Public Health Federation, established in 1917 was the first independent health council in American City. It is in this period that the American Association of social workers organized in 1921, the first general professional organisations, set up its training for the social workers and others who specialized in community organization.

A community chest is a voluntary welfare agency, co-operative organization of citizens and welfare agencies, which is the powerful local force for community welfare origination that handles large funds. It has two functions. It raises funds through a community -wide appeal and distributes them according to a systematic budget procedure. Secondly it promotes co-operative planning. co-ordination and administration of the communities social welfare.

3. Period of Expansion and professional Development 1935 to present time.

It is in this period the we see the greater use of the community organization process in the filed of public welfare. A marked significance of this era is the establishment of Federal Security Agency where we see the maximized involvement of the Govt. in welfare programs. In 1946 the agency was strengthened and re-organized following which in 1953 Department of Health, education and Welfare was established.

Another important factor of the period is about the professional development that took place. Some of the important professional developments are:

The National Conference of Social work in 1938-39 undertook a study on community organization, which later publicized the nature of "Generic Community welfare organization". Based on this another study took place in 1940, but due to America involvement in World War II an active program could not take off.

In 1946, at the National conference of social work in Buffalo, the Association of the study of community organization (ASCO) was organized. The main objective was to improve the professional practice of organization for social welfare. In 1955, ASCO merged with six other professional organisations to form the National Association of social workers. Community organization has been recognized as integral and important aspect of social work education in the American Association of Schools of social work education. At present thee is an active committee of Council on social work education involved in the production of teaching materials in community organization.

The first contemporary textbook on community organization titled " Community Organization for social welfare " published in 1945 has been written by Wayne McMilen's .

Another development in the history of community development is seen in the wake of World War II. Wartime needs were very special and crucial. During this time many councils and community war services came to the forefront. Among them (USO) united service organization is of prime importance as it was the union of many forces that served the needs of the military personnel and defense communities. The other striking characteristics of the period is the immense increase in the volunteer service i.e. defense council, American Red Cross and USO which co-ordinated and recruited the volunteers.

Another development that took place at the wartime is the growth of closer relationship between labor and social work, which is considered as great significance to community origination.

The other developments that took place after the World War II are as follows that are very specific to community organization area as follows.

The rehabilitation of the physically and mentally challenged

Mental health planning, problems of the aging

Prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency.

In order to address theses issues separate bodies were set up and we see the entry of international agencies in the field of community origination. The present situation in community organization is the emergence of the new community development programs, which aims at providing, services to the less developed areas in the international social welfare. Therefore the present agenda is on working with the whole community and a greater emphasis on self -help.

COMUNITYORGANISATION IN U.K:

Baldock (1974) has summed up the historical development in U.K. by diving it in to four phases.

The first Phase: - 1880-1920: During this period the community work was mainly seen as a method of social work. It was considered as a process of helping the individuals to enhance their social adjustments. It acted as major player to co-ordinate the work of voluntary agencies.

The second phase: - 1920-1950: This period saw the emergence of new ways of dealing with social issues and problems. The community organization was closely associated with central and state Govt.'s program for urban development. The important development in this period was its association with community association movement.

The third phase 1950 onwards: - it emerged as a reaction to the neighborhood idea, which provided an ideological phase for the second phase. It was period we see the professional development of social work. Most of the educators and planners tried to analyze the shortcomings in the existing system. It was also a period where the social workers sought for a professional identity.

The forth phase: It is a period that has marked the involvement of the community action. It questioned the very relationship of the community work and social work. It was thus seen as period of radical social movement and we could see the conflicts of community with authority. The association of social workers and the community were de-professionalised during this period. Thus it was during this period the conflictual strategies that were introduced in the community work, although even now there is no consensus on this issue (Baldock 1974).

HISTORY OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN INDIA

A historical account of the community organization is not available in India, as there has been only a rare documentation on social work literature in general and community organization in particular.

Community organization has its roots in the Charity organizations in the United States. They realized the need of the people and tied to organize the people to coordinate their work. The main activities were social welfare, raising funds, seeking enactment for the social legislation and co-ordination of welfare activities. The spirit behind all these activities was charity. In India, the very concept of charity is deep rooted in the religious philosophy. Even before the commencement of the social work education in India in 1937, the community work was in place. But in the first phase from 1937 t0 1952 the community work was in a dormant stage. During this period the social work was in its infancy and not many were employed in the community settings because. There were hardly any jobs that provided an opening for community organization. Professionals preferred to work in casework settings.

It was in 1952 the community development project was launched in India and with this we find the emergence of a new era of community work. The basic objective of community development in India was to awaken the rural people of their needs, instilling in them a sense of ambition for better life and making them aware of their right and power to find a solution for their problems. According to Mukerji (1961) Community development is a movement designed to promote better living for the whole community with the active participation and if possible with the initiative of community" According to him community development can be divided in to two process. 1.Extension education 2.Community organization. Extension education was expected to improve the quality of human beings by improving his/her knowledge and skills. By community organization Mukerji had in mind the setting up of three institutions in the village.

Village Panchayat

The village co-operative

The village school

During this period the thrust of the community work remained rural where as social work remained urban in character.

From 1970 onwards we could see a new trend in the community work practice. The social workers expanded their scope and operational area from their traditional approach of casework. to other developments fields. For example people working with school children started working with the community. The Ngo's and voluntary organization adopted a community approach. This shift has in-fact led to the use of process of community work. By and large the community work has remained welfare -oriented.

The current phase of community work in India is experiencing a growing dissatisfaction with its own practice or rather the out come of its practice. So efforts are on to create alternate ways of working with communities. In-spite of these, the professionals is involved in a variety of projects in both rural and urban areas to promote better living for the community.

Another trend in the community work is the involvement of the Business houses in promoting welfare in their neighborhood. This is commonly known as CSR. (Corporate social responsibilities) The business houses i.e. Tats, Escorts, and some of the multinational companies too have joined in this venture. This trend has attracted many professionals in this field

The main objective of community development is to develop village communities by methods, which will stimulate, encourage and aid villagers themselves to do much of the work necessary to accomplish the desired goals. The changes conceived and promoted should have the involvement of the people and should be acceptable to them and put in to practice by them.

THE DIFFERENCE:

There is a common philosophical base between community organization and community development. Both aims to enable people to live happily and fully developed life. Both have basic faith in the common man and his right to self-determination in the framework of the society. Both give emphasis to self-help and help the people to help themselves to solve their own problems. However, community organization and community development should not be considered as synonymous.

CD is concerned with the promotion of all aspects of life including social, economical and cultural; both in rural and urban areas. While CO is concerned with adjustment of social welfare needs and resources in cities, states, Nations as well as in villages?

CO is practiced in the USA on a voluntary basis. While CD in almost all the developing countries is a government-sponsored program.

CO is a product of urbanization and industrialization. Here the main concern is problems of the population mobility, problems of the family, problems of the aged, problems of the juvenile delinquency, of unemployment and provision of social security. But CD is concerned with how to induce people to meet their basic human needs.

CO tends to be more process oriented while CD as practiced in India tends to be target oriented.

2.5 GANDHIAN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION:

Gandhi has not given a literary definition of the term community. For him the village is the basic community with geographical limitation where a number of families come together and co-operate to build a common life. According to Gandhi the basic element of a community is mutual co-operation and common sharing.

The emphasis of Gandhian concept of community organization is the reconstruction of the community rather than on organizing of an unorganized or disorganized community or on the development of entirely a new community. Therefore the Gandhian objective of community organization is to reconstruct the village communities spread all over the country. This construction is based on the 19 item constructive program designed to meet the social welfare needs of the community. It is through the construction of the village community Gandhi aims to realize he goal of reconstructing the "sarvodaya Social order". Gandhi has not given any specific or fixed pattern for the reconstruction program but left it to the capacity of those community organizers and to suit to the different conditions and social situations.

The role of the worker in this approach is very distinct. Here, the worker not only deals with those groups of people or communities who seek his guidance but he would also would approach those communities, which do not ask for help as his prime work being the reconstruction of the society. In this approach the worker takes initiatives and gradually stimulates the community .It demands the regularity and sincerity of the worker in the reconstruction program.

2.6 MODELS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

WHAT IS A MODEL?

Before we proceed to understand the different methods and models of community organization it is wise to understand the terminology. What is a model?

Model:

It is a medium through which a person looks at the complex realities. Model is a simplistic version of a complex situation. Models serve as a reference for the work and give us a clear understanding of what would happen. They describe strategies for accomplishing a vision, the appropriate steps to be taken to get there. Some models grow out of the specific ideologies of change and some in response to concrete situations.

2.7.MODEL OF COMMUNITY ORGANISATION BY ROTHMAN:

Since 100 years people in various situations, countries have been trying to address the issues of social welfare .The study of the history helps us to know the drastic changes that took place. A major shift from the charity approach to the professional delivery of services.

Jack Rothman has introduced three basic models of community organization. They are:

Locality development

Social planning

Social Action

1.MODEL A- LOCALITY DEVELOPMENT:

Locality development model is a method of working with community groups .It was earlier used by the settlement houses. Here the important focus is about the process of community building. Leadership development and the education of the participants are the essential elements in the process.

According to Murray Ross the "process of self help and communal action is valuable in its own right". The model of locality development is based on this particular thought process. It originated from the traditional community organization practice. The main focus of this model is whole community or a part of it. The basic belief is that communities have some common needs and interests and once the people realize this need and work together democratically they can take appropriate steps to improve the quality of life.

Here the role of the community organizer is to enhance the involvement of the people in the community and help the community to plan and help them find a solution to the problem. It is similar to work of community development, which is done in the underdevelopment world.

It refers to the community organization practice when a worker or an agency attempts to develop various schemes and programs to meet the needs of the target population in a defined area. It also includes coordination of various agencies providing a variety of services in the area.

2.MODEL B- SOCIAL PLANNING:

It refers to the type of community work where a worker or agency undertakes an exercise of evaluating welfare needs and existing services in the area and suggests a possible blue print for a more efficient delivery of services, it is termed as social planning. It is concerned with social problems For example. Housing, education, health, childcare and so on. Its aim is to affect a large population. The community planner works in greater capacity with the government and is often identified with power structure of the community but interested in the needs and attitudes of the community.

3.MODEL C- SOCIAL ACTION:

According to Friedlander,W.A. ( 1963) " Social Action is an individual, group or community effort within the framework of the social work philosophy and practice that aims to achieve social progress, to modify social policies and to improve social legislation and health and welfare services". Another model of community organization suggested by Rothman is that of social action. According to him social action is a strategy used by groups or sub communities or even national organisations that feel that they have inadequate power and resources to meet their needs. So they confront with the power structure using conflict as a method to solve their issues related to inequalities and deprivation.

In this type of community organisations the community organizer uses all means to pressure the power structure to give in to demands. The role of organizers may differ depending the issues they get involved in. The role may be of advocate, activist, agitator, broker or negotiator. It is a process. This organizing process goes through different stage .So the role of the organizer will also change as per the roles of the organisor at each stage.

This model was commonly used during the 1960's. This has been used as a means to redress the social problems of the nation, redistribute the resources and power to the poor and powerless. Social action as model has an important role in community organization.

MODELS OF COMMUNITY ORGANISATION:

A comparative statement of the models outlined by Rothman (1979)

Source: Rothman (1979)

DIMENSION OF COMPARIONSLOCALITY DEVELOPMENTSOCIAL PLANINGSOCIAL ACTIONGoalSelf-help and common integrationProblem solving of substantive community problemsShifting power and resourcesAssumptions

DemocraticSociety lacks viable relationships and problem solving capacitySubstantiate social problem exits like. poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment Disadvantaged population/society.

Injustice and inequality.StrategyInvolvement of broad sections of community in determining and solving problemsFact gathering, rational decision making, enabling an effective course of actionOrganize people to take action against targets.

Methods

Improve community relations among different groups in bringing consensus

Build consensus or induce conflictInduce conflict through

Direct action

Negotiation

Confrontation Agency types

Agencies

Settlement house, Consumer association, Welfare councils,

Planning bodiesSocial movements

.

2.8.APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION:

The History has witnessed diversity of efforts in the community organization and the emergence of new initiatives in the field. Most often these of community organizing efforts are centered on identity communities and issue-specific communities. History gives us a list of different kind of community organizing methods. One such community organizing which the twentieth century has witnessed is the growth of neighborhood organizing.

Neighborhood organizing:

Neighborhood organizing is one form of community organizing. This nothing but an effort by the community to solve the day to day problems and help those in need.

There are three type approaches to neighborhood organizing.

The social work Approach

Political Activists Approach

Neighborhood maintenance/Community development Approach

1.The social work Approach:

In this approach, the society is viewed as a social organism and therefore the efforts are oriented towards building a sense of community. The community organizer whose role is of an "enabler or an advocate " helps the community identify a problem in the neighborhood and strives to achieve the needed social resources by gathering the existing the social services and by lobbying with some in power to meet the needs of the neighborhood. This method is more consensual and the neighborhood is seen as a collective client. One example of this approach is the social settlement movement USA and war on poverty program of the Johnson administration in the 1960s.

2.The political Activists Approach:

Saul Alinsky, the Godfather of community organizing is the founder of this approach .He emerged as a community organizer in the 1930s.The basic philosophy of this approach is based on his thinking that " more representative the organization the stronger the organization."

In this approach the community is seen as a political entity and not as a social organism. Here, the neighborhood is viewed as a potential power base capable of getting power. The role of the community organizer is to help the community understand the problem in terms of power and necessary steps are taken to mobilize the community. The problem of the neighborhood is always identified as absence of power and in the interest of gaining power for the neighborhood the organizers are faced with conflicts with groups, interests and elities. Since most of the community organizers come from out side the community, it has faced the problems of equality of power relations and leadership in the community.

Unlike the social work approach to community organization this approach has the potential to create stable, democratic and effective organisations of neighborhood residents by seeing its role as " meeting power with power"

Neighborhood maintenance/Community development Approach:

This approach has emerged out of both the previous approaches namely within the same neighborhood movements. It is seen in the form of civic associations. This association uses peer group pressure to provide services in the community. They use this strategy to pressurize the officials to deliver services to the community but sometimes this approach takes the form of political activists approach as they realize that their goals can be only achieved only through confrontations.

In this approach we see the characteristics of de-emphasis on dissent and confrontation and these organisations view themselves as more proactive and development minded.

2.9.MODELS OF ROTHMAN:

It is important to have a theoretical frame work to work in the community. This theoretical framework facilitates the worker to adopt strategies and helps him choose the type of focus he/she wants to maintain in the professional practice. Rothman has given three models of practice, which are as follows:

Neighborhood development model

System Change model

Structural change model

1.Neighbourhood development Model:

Neighborhood Model is the oldest model of community organization. This model has been practiced in India and in some of the underdeveloped countries. It has been used in the developmental activities. In general it is believed that people living in a neighborhood have the capacity to meet the problems they come across in their day to day life through their own efforts and resources. The main aspect here is that the community realizes its needs and takes appropriate steps to meet the needs of the community, which will bring greater satisfaction to all its members both individually and collectively. The role of the worker in this model is to induce a process that will sensitize the community and make the community realize its needs. Based on the value of self-sustenance the worker energizes the community and makes the community self-reliant, and not merely depending on the help form out side. So rather than providing services in the community, the communities are energized to meet its own needs. This model encourages the people to think for themselves rather than doing things for them.

Some of the steps in this model are:

Identifying the geographical area for your intervention

Making your way to the community

Understand the community and identify the felt needs

Making an appropriate program

Planning for resource mobilization

Developing a strong net-work in the community

Planning for withdrawal from the community

2. SYSTEM CHANGE MODEL:

As the name suggests, the system change model aims at developing strategies to either restructure or modify the system. Thus it is termed as "System Change approach to community work. Although we find glimpses of this model gaining more acceptance, this has not become very popular. We know of various mechanisms that cater to the needs of the society. Such as education, health services housing, women empowerment, and employment. All these services are rooted through various systems and all these systems do have sub-systems. The fundamental aspect in this model is that the due to various reasons the systems become dysfunctional. For example the system of education as we have it today, reveals that the cities have better educational faculties as compared to the rural areas. This system (education policy) of education has generated disparities in the society. I.e. access to education, lack of basic facilities, trained staff, etc. The system instead of becoming a tool of empowering mechanism brings disparities between people of different socio-economic condition. So the system has failed to achieve its objectives. Thus the worker on observing this disfunction in the community finds it important to develop strategies to restructure or modify the system.

Some of the tasks in this model are:

Understanding the deficiencies in the system.

Communicating the findings with the community

Making strategies to influence the decision making bodies.

Mobilizing peoples participation and seeking out-side support to translate the plan in to concrete action.

Making alliances and partnerships with other NGOS and comminutes to demand a change.

3.STRUCTURAL CHANGE MODEL:

One of the most difficult and rarely practiced models of community work is structural change model. The society consists of small communities and it is nothing but "a web of relationships". These relationships of the people are formally structured by the respective countries' state policies, law and constitutions and informally by its customs, traditions etc. that determines the social rights of the individuals. The social structure in some of the societies is controlled by the state.

Understanding the macro- structure of social relationship and its impact on the micro realities, the worker tries to mobilize the public opinion to radically change the macro-structure. Thus the structural change model aims to bring a new social order, an alternative form of society which will transform the existing conditions at the micro-level. This can happen only if an alternative form of political ideology is adopted. This form of community work may originate from a community itself but it has a wider coverage coverage i.e. the entire society or nation. Sometimes this takes the shape of social action, which is an another method of social work profession. Since the general situation in the developing countries is very peculiar, it is very difficult for the community worker to actually practice this model.

A social worker may initiate this model. But it is very difficult to predict the success. However, he s makes attempt to saw the seeds of social change by adopting a political ideology .It might take decades to actually perceive any transformation in the society nevertheless one can be proud of being the agent of social change.

The special tasks involved these models are:

Understanding the relation ships between macro- and micro social realities.

Adopting an alternative political ideology.

Sharing with the family members/faculty members

Helping the communities

Helping the communities to identify a course of action.

To prepare the community to sustain its interests, enthusiasm and capacity to met the strains that may arise out of the conflict with the existing power structure.

LET US SUM UP:

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1

Notes: 1) Write your answer in the space provided

2) Check your answer with the model answer given at the end of the unit.

What do you understand by neighborhood development model?

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS II

Notes: 1) Write your answer in the space provided

2) Check your answer with the model answer given at the end of the unit.

Describe in brief about the historical development of community organization in USA.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS III

Notes: 1) Write your answer in the space provided

2) Check your answer with the model answer given at the end of the unit.

Write a short note on the historical development of community organization in India and discuss the relevance of Gandhian approach.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS IV

Notes: 1) Write your answer in the space provided

2) Check your answer with the model answer given at the end of the unit.

Write a short note on philosophy of community organization?

SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES

Arthur Dunham: Community welfare organization, Principles and practice, Thomas Y.Crowell Co., New York, 1958, pp23.

Murray Ross, Community Organization-Theory and Principles, Harper Bros., New York, 1955.

Ronald Lippitt,J Watson and B. Westly, The Dynamics of Planned Change, A comparative Study of Principles and Technique, Harcourt, Brace and Co., New York, 1958.

Robert Moriis and Robert Binstok, Feasible Planning for social change, Columbia University Press, New York, 158.

Walter A. Friendlander and Robert Z. Apte: Introduction to Social welfare, Prentice-Hall India Private Limited, 1982.

Steiner Frederick Jesse: Community organization, The New century Co. New York 1958.

Siddiqui H.Y: Working with communities an introduction to community work, Hira Publications, New Delhi, 1997

Dayal Parameshwari: Gandhian Approach to Social Work, Gujrat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad, 1986




Social Work Intervention with Communities and Institutions

Unit- 1: Community Organisation: Concept and Principles

Contents:

Aim and Objectives

Introduction

Meaning and Definition of Community Organisation

Community Work and Community Organisation in Social Work

Value orientation of community Organisation

The Principles of Community Organisation

Let us sum up

Key words

Model Answers

1.10. Further Readings


1.1 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this unit is to provide you guidelines to understand the Community organisation as a method of social work practice. In this unit you will learn about the meaning, definition, values and principles of community organisation. Through this unit you will be also aware of the concepts of community work and community organisation in social work.

When we complete this unit you will be able to:

  1. Define the community organisation.
  2. Situate the community work and community organisation in the context of social work.
  3. Explain the values and principles of community organisation


1.2 Introduction

In social work profession there are three basic methods of working with people (individuals, families, groups and communities). We have already studied the two methods namely, social casework and social group work. The third basic method is community organisation. As we are aware social casework is aimed at helping individuals on one-to-one basis and social group work seeks to facilitate the development of individuals through group activities. The aim of community organisation is ‘developing a capacity’ in the community ‘by making it more organised’ to handle its own needs or problems. Community organisation is well-established method in social work. It has value orientation and the practice is guided by a set of general principles.

1.3 Meaning and Definition Community Organisation:

Meaning:

Before we get to know more about community organisation as the method of social work, let us first understand the meaning of the term we use. The term community organisation has several meanings. It is being often used synonymous to community work, community development and community mobilization. In general, community organisation means helping the community to solve its problems. In the context of social work profession in India, the term is used to denote a method of social work to intervene in the life of a community.

In sociology we learn that society and social institutions are more than just a collection of individuals. They include how those individuals are linked to each other. They are sets of systems such as economy, political organisation, value, ideas, belief systems, technology, and patterns of expected behaviours (social interaction). It means that just collections of individuals living at a common place are not necessarily organized. To call them organized they needs to have a set of common ideas and expectations. This gives them a social structure and some social processes that make the organisation something (social). It goes beyond the very individuals that compose the community.

Further it is important to note that just forming various groups in community having some structure or form (e.g. having a president, treasurer, secretary, etc.) does not make the community organized. It is not the multiplicity of institutions, interest groups or set of activities, which make the organized community, for it, may create more conflicts and disrupt the normal life. Thus the important determining factors of community organisation are interaction, integration and co-ordination of the existing institutions, interest groups and activities, and evolving new groups and institutions if necessary to meet the changing conditions and needs of the community.

Definition:

To study and to be able to engage in community organisation practice it is necessary to have a clear definition. There are several definitions available in literature, which are put forth at different times and context. The common element in most of them is matching resources to needs. We will discuss here two most widely accepted definitions of community organisation.

Murray G. Ross (1967) defines community organisation as a “process by which a community identifies its needs or objectives, gives priority to them, develops the confidence and will to work at them, finds resources (internal and external) to deal with them, and in doing so, extends and develops co-cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community”.

In this definition by “process” he meant a movement from identification of a problem or objective to solution of the problem or attainment of the objective in the community. There are other processes for dealing with community problems, but here he called the community organisation process that by which the capacity of the community to function as an integrated unit grows as it deals with one or more community problems. The task of the professional worker in community organisation is to help initiate, nourish, and develop this process. His task is also to make this process conscious, deliberative, and understood.

“Community,” in the sense in which it is used here, refers to two major groupings of people. Firstly it may be all the people in a specific geographic area, i.e., a village, a town, a city, a neighborhood, or a district in a city. In the same manner it could refer also to all the people in a province or a state, a nation, or in the world. Secondly, it is used to include groups of people who share some common interest or function, such as welfare, agriculture, education, and religion. In this context community organisation may be involved in bringing these persons together to develop some awareness of, and feeling for their “community” and to work at common problems arising out of the interest or function they have in common.

The second definition that we discuss here is by Kramer and Specht (1975), which is in more technical terms. They defined that “Community organisation refers to various methods of intervention whereby a professional change agent helps a community action system composed of individuals, groups or organisations to engage in planned collective action in order to deal with special problems within the democratic system of values.”

According to their explanations it involves two major interrelated concerns: (a) the interaction process of working with an action system which includes identifying, recruiting and working with the members and developing organizational and interpersonal relationships among them which facilitates their efforts; and (b) the technical tasks involved in identifying problem areas, analyzing causes, formulating plans, developing strategies and mobilizing the resources necessary to effect action.

The analysis of both these definitions reveals that they cover the “Need-Resources Adjustment” approach, “the Social Relationships” approach and a combination of the two ideas of meeting needs and development of co-operative attitudes.

The distinguishing features of community organisation practice are derived largely from the three dimensions. (1) The nature of its setting and focus- the community and its problems, 2) from the nature of its goals – enhanced functional capacity of the community and its ability to influence the social welfare policy and 3) from the techniques it employs towards effecting the inter-personal and inter-group relationships of the members of the community. The statements defining community organisation method stress individually or in combination the above three factors and also refer to clientele and the total process to which the method is applied.

Check your progress I

1. Define community organisation.

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1.4 Community Work and Community organisation in Social Work

Having discussed the meaning and definition of Community organisation lets now try to situate it in the context of community work and social work profession. In social work the term “community work” is often used with different meanings. In social work literature we find that the term “community work”, “community development”, “Community Organisation” and “Community empowerment” are at times interchangeably used for the work with communities. Some authors have used these terms for the same type of work whereas others use them to refer to different type of work with communities.

Community work has a long history as an aspect of social work. It has passed through various phases. All over the world it has been recognized as an integral part of social work practice. History shows that community work even preceded social work education. In UK and USA community work in social work began in the 1800 with the charity organisation movement and the settlement house movement. During the initial phase in UK community work was primarily seen as a method of social work, trying to help individuals to enhance their social adjustment. The main thrust was to act as a means to coordinate the work of voluntary agencies.

In India the experience of working with slum community in the city of Mumbai lead to the establishment of the first institution of social work education in 1937. Community work as a method of social work in India is largely seen as a process of developing local initiatives, particularly in the areas of education, health and agriculture development. The focus of the work is, to encourage people to express their needs, and enable them to avail the existing resources.

There are several ways in which social work practitioners and others work in the community. In social work we find three main approaches namely, Community Development, Community Organisation and Community relations/services. While these approaches represent different situations or areas of community work there are fundamental similarities in what is being attempted. Their components are often interlinked and at times overlapping.

What is important for us here to understand is that the community work is one of the basic social work processes. It is being used to attain the same basic objectives, as casework and groupwork. As you may be aware that all the social work methods are concerned with removal of the blocks to growth of individual, group, or community, release of their potentialities, full use of inner resources, development of capacity to manage one’s own life and their ability to function as an integrated unit. In community organisation particularly, social work is concerned with the initiation of that process which enable a community to overcome those blocks (apathy, vested interests, discrimination) which prevent the community from working together; release of potentialities and use of indigenous resources and growth of those cooperative attitude and skills which make possible achievement of increasingly difficult ends.

Thus, Community organisation is more of a product of the maturation process than of the beginnings of the profession. The increasingly complex and interdependent nature of modern society makes community organisation almost a pre-requisite for reasonably smooth functioning.

Check your progress II

1. What is the position of community work in social work?

­­­­­­­­­­­1.5. The Value orientation of Community Organisation

From the discussion above we understand that community organisation is an integral part of social work practice. In order to practice community organisation some obvious questions arise that how should it be done? Are there any value orientations and general principles that may guide us in deciding what is sound or good or socially desirable community organisation? What is desirable or accepted in community organisation practice? How to improve the chances of success in achieving the objectives of community organisation? We deal with these and such other questions in this section.

Community organisation derives from a unique frame of reference, the nature of which is based on a particular value orientation. In social work, the focus of community organisation practice is influenced by a system of personal and professional values. These values affects workers style of intervention and the skills they use in working with community members. Values are beliefs that delineate preferences about how one ought or ought not to behave. Such formulations of values obviously have a large subjective element. Values differ between groups and between individuals within the same group. Moreover, there has been no explicit, comprehensive, or generally accepted formulation of basic ethical and social values by any representative group of community organisation practitioners.

The value orientation of community organisation as of all social work derives from acceptance of certain concepts and facts as a foundation for work with people. Among these are the essential dignity and ethical worth of the individual, the possession by each individual of potentialities and resources for managing his own life, the importance of freedom to express one’s individuality, the great capacity or growth within all social beings, the right of the individual to those basic physical necessities (food shelter and clothing) without which fulfillment of life is often blocked, the need for the individual to struggle and strive to improve his own life and environment, the right of the individual to help in time of need and crisis, the importance of a social organisation for which the individual feels responsible and which is responsive to individual feeling, the need of a social climate which encourages individual growth and development, the right and responsibility of the individual to participate in the affairs of his community, the practicability of discussion, conference, and consultation as methods for the solution of individual and social problems, “self help” as the essential base of any programme of aid, etc. These and other similar value orientations constitute the basis of community organisation.

Check your progress III

1. Discuss in brief the value orientation of community organisation practice.

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1.6 Principles of Community Organisation

Principles of community organisation, in the sense in which the term is used here are generalized guiding rules for the sound practice. Principles are expressions of value judgments. The principles of community organisation, which are being discussed here, are within the frame of and in harmony with the spirit and purpose of social work in a democratic society. We are concerned with the dignity and worth, the freedom, the security, the participation, and the wholesome and abundant life o every individual. This implies following the principles of democracy, involvement of the marginalized, transparency, honesty, sustainability, self-reliance, partnerships, cooperation, etc.

In the literature of community organisation we find various sets of principles. Dunham (1958) has presented a statement of 28 suggested principles of community organisation. He grouped those under seven headings.

(i) Democracy and social welfare,

(ii) Community roots for community programs,

(iii) Citizen understanding, support, and participation and professional service,

(iv) Co operation,

(v) Social Welfare Programs,

(vi) Adequacy, distribution, and organisation of social welfare services, and

(vii) Prevention.

Ross (1967) outlined specific principles – the elementary or fundamental ideas regarding initiation and continuation of community organisation processes. These principles have been discussed in terms of the nature of the organisation or association and the role of the professional worker. The twelve principles identified by Ross are:

1. Discontent with existing conditions in the community must initiate and/or nourish development of the association.

2. Discontent must be focused and channeled into organisation, planning, and action in respect to specific problems.

3. Discontent which initiates or sustains community organisation must be widely shared in the community.

4. The association must involve leaders (both formal and informal) identified with, and accepted by major sub-groups in the community.

5. The association must have goals and methods and procedures of high acceptability.

6. The programme of the association should include some activities with an emotional content.

7. The association should seek to utilize the manifest and latent goodwill which exists in the community.

8. The association must develop active and effective lines of communication both within the association and between the association and the community.

9. The association should seek to support and strengthen groups which it brings together in cooperative work.

10. The association should develop a pace of work relative to existing conditions in the community.

11. The association should seek to develop effective leaders.

12. The association must develop strength, stability and prestige in the community.

Keeping in mind the actual practice situations in India Siddiqui (1997) have worked out a set of 8 principles.

  1. The Principle of Specific Objectives
  2. The Principle of Planning
  3. The Principle of Peoples Participation
  4. The Principle of inter-group approach
  5. The Principle of democratic functioning
  6. The Principle of flexible organisation
  7. The Principle of Optimum Utilisation of Indigenous Resources
  8. The Principle of Cultural orientation

We are trying to interpret some of the principles from the available sets of principles for guiding our practice of community organisation in Indian context.

  1. Community organisation is means and not an end: As discussed earlier the community organisation is a process by which the capacity of the community to function as an integrated unit is being enhanced. In this sense it is a method or a means to enable people to live a happy and fully developed life. It refers to a method of intervention whereby a community consisting of individuals, groups or organisations are helped to engage in planned collective action in order to deal with their needs and problems.
  2. Community Organisation is to promote community solidarity and the practice of democracy: It should seek to overcome disruptive influences, which threaten the well being of the community and the vitality of democratic institutions. In community organisation discrimination and segregation or exclusion should be avoided and integration and mutual acceptance should be promoted.

  1. The clear identification of the Community: Since the community is the client of the community organisation worker, it must be clearly identified. It is likely that there are several communities with which he/she deals at the same time. Further it is important that once the community is identified the entire community must be the concern of the practitioner. No programme can be isolated from the social welfare needs and resources of the community as a whole. The welfare of the whole community is always more important than the interest or the well being of any one agency/group in the community.

  1. Fact-finding and needs assessment: Community organisation programmes should have its roots in the community. Proper fact-finding and assessment of the community needs is the pre requisite for starting any programme in the community. It is generally desirable for local community services to be indigenous, grass-roots developments rather than to be imposed form without. Whenever possible, then, a community organisation should have its origin in a need felt by the community or by some substantial number of persons in the community and there should be vital community participation, and usually essential community control, in its development.

While facilitating the process of community organisation the programmes should be initiated, developed, modified, and terminated on the basis of the needs of the community and on the basis of the availability of other comparable services. When the particular need for a service is met, the programme should be modified or terminated.

  1. Identification, Mobilization and Utilization of the available resources: The fullest possible use should be made of existing social welfare resources, before creating new resources or services. In the absence of resources/services the worker has to mobilize the resources from various sources such as community, government, non-government agencies, etc. While utilizing the indigenous resources it must be recognised that these resources may sometimes need extensive overhauling before they will meet certain needs. Apart from mobilizing physical resources, indigenous human resources should be put to optimum use.
  2. Participatory Planning: The community organisation worker must accept the need for participatory planning throughout the process of community organisation. It is important that the practitioner prepares a blue print in the beginning of what he/she intends to do with the community. This is done with the community taking into consideration the needs of the community, available resources, agency objectives, etc. Planning in community organisation is a continuous process as it follows the cycle of implementation and evaluation. The planning should be on the basis of ascertained facts, rather than an expression of guesswork, “hunches,” or mere trial and error.

In order to foster the greater participation it is necessary to analyse the impeding factors and take timely steps to remove them. Instead of forcing people to participate in all the issues they should be encouraged to participate at a level and issues in accordance with their capacities. It must be noted that the people will participate if they are convinced of the benefits of the programme.

  1. Active and vital participation: The concept of self-help is a core of community organisation. The community members’ participation throughout the process of community organisation should be encouraged from the standpoint both of democratic principle and of feasibility- that is, the direct involvement in the progrmme of those who have the primary stake in it’s results. “Self-help” by citizen or clientele groups should be encouraged and fostered.
  2. Communities’ right of self determination should be respected: The Role of the Community organisation worker is to provide professional skill, assistance, and creative leadership in enabling peoples’ groups and organizations to achieve social welfare objectives. The community members should make basic decisions regarding programme and policy. While the community organisation worker plays a variety of roles in different situations, he is basically concerned with enabling peoples’ expression and leadership to achieve community organisation goals, and not with control, domination, or manipulation.
  3. Voluntary cooperation: Community organisation must be based upon mutual understanding, voluntary acceptance, and mutual agreement. Community organisation, if it is to be in harmony with democratic principles, cannot be regimentation; it should not be imposed from outside, but must be derived from the inner freedom and will to unite of those who practice it.
  4. The spirit of cooperation rather than competition, and the practice of coordination of effort: Community organisation practice should be based on the spirit of cooperation rather than competition. The community organisation practice has proved that the most effective advances are made through cooperative effort. It is by the coordinated and sustained programs attacking major problems rather than through sporadic efforts by various groups.

The emphasis on collaborative and cooperative attitudes and practices does not imply elimination of differences, of tension, or of conflict. In fact we have to recognize that these later forces gives life and vitality to a movement. It must be understood that such conflict can be disruptive and destructive, or it can be positive and creative. What is important for the community organisation worker is that he/she identifies such forces and appropriately modifies them to the end beneficial to community as whole.

  1. Recognition and involvement of indigenous leadership: Community organisation as it has been described requires the participation of the people of a community. However everyone in the community cannot be involved in face-to-face contact with all others in the community; therefore it is important to identify and recognize the leaders (both the formal and informal) accepted by various groups and subgroups in the community. Inclusion of the respected and accepted leaders with whom the major subgroups identify provides a major step in integrating the community and makes possible initiation of a process of communication which, if it becomes effective, will nourish and sustain the process of community organisation.
  2. Limited use of authority or compulsion: Invoking the application of authority or compulsion may sometimes be necessary in community organisation; but it should be used as little as possible, for as short a time as possible, and only as a last resort. When compulsion must be applied, it should be followed as soon as possible by resumption of the cooperative process.
  3. The dynamic and flexible nature of Programmes and Services: This principle is basic to sound community organisation. Social welfare agencies and programmes must be responsive to the changing conditions, problems, and needs of community life. Community is a dynamic phenomenon, which constantly changes and thus the needs and problems also keeps changing. Therefore it is necessary that the programmes and services are flexible enough.
  4. Continual Participatory evaluation: As programmes are developed to meet community needs, some time must be set aside for evaluation of the process. Regular feedback from the community is important. Criteria must be set up for evaluation of the programmes, to see how effective the action has been and what has been accomplished.

Check your progress IV

  1. Community organisation practice should be based on the spirit of cooperation rather than competition, discuss.
  2. Discuss the principles of planning and evaluation in community organisation.

1.7 Let us sum up

The aim of this unit was to provide you guidelines to understand the basic concept of Community organisation as a method of social work practice. We have discussed in detail the meaning of community organisation and also provided the definitions with explanations. Now you will be able to explain the meaning and definition of community organisation. Being aware that community work and community organisation are integral part of social work, you will be able to situate them in the context of social work. We have discussed the value orientation and some of the important principles guiding the community organisation practice. You are now in a position to recognize the importance of the values and principles and will be able to follow them while practicing community organisation in the field.

1.8 Key Words

  • Capacity: The ability, power or strength of an individual, community or an organization.
  • Community Integration: A process in which the exercise of co operative and collaborative attitude and practices leads to greater identification with community, interest and participation in the affairs for community and sharing of common values and means for expressing these values
  • Community Participation: Community participation means to ensure that decisions affecting the community are taken by all (not only a few) community members (not by an outside agency).
  • Co-operation: to help one another in allied tasks or to work together towards a common end, purpose or effect.
  • Formulating Plans: Planning the various steps and methods necessary to achieve the goal.
  • Need-Resources Adjustment: Matching the resources with the identified needs in the community.
  • Resource: A “resource” is anything of value (Physical material, money, people, etc.) that can be used as an “input” for a project.
  • Social Institution: Association, custom, or relationship consciously approved by a society, and organized and maintained through prescribed rules and agencies. It means a recognised pattern of social interaction. An institution comes with a set of attitudes, behaviour patterns, expectations and meanings.
  • Social Interaction: Social interaction is the behaviour and beliefs between people that is dependent upon the behaviour and beliefs of each other and of other people.

1.9 Model Answers

Check your Progress I

1. Define community organisation.

There are several definitions available in literature, which are put forth at different times and context. The common element in most of them is matching resources to needs. We will discuss here two most widely accepted definitions of community organisation.

Murray G. Ross defines community organisation as a “process by which a community identifies its needs or objectives, gives priority to them, develops the confidence and will to work at them, finds resources (internal and external) to deal with them, and in doing so, extends and develops co-cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community”.

Another definition that we discuss here is by Kramer and Specht (1975), which is in more technical terms. They defined that “Community organisation refers to various methods of intervention whereby a professional change agent helps a community action system composed of individuals, groups or organisations to engage in planned collective action in order to deal with special problems within the democratic system of values.”

Check your Progress II

  1. What is the position of community work in social work?

In social work the term “community work” is often used with different meanings. In social work literature we find that the term “community work”, “community development”, “Community Organisation” and “Community empowerment” are at times found interchangeably used for the work with communities. Some authors have used these terms for the same type of work whereas others use them to refer to different type of work with communities.

Community work has a long history as an aspect of social work. It has passed through various phases. All over the world it has been recognized as an integral part of social work practice. During the initial phase in UK community work was primarily seen as a method of social work, trying to help individuals to enhance their social adjustment.

Community work as a method of social work in India is largely seen as a process of developing local initiatives, particularly in the areas of education, health and agriculture development. The focus of the work is, to encourage people to express their needs, and enable them to avail the existing resources.

Check your Progress III

1. Discuss in brief the value orientation of community organisation practice.

In social work, the focus of community organisation practice is influenced by a system of personal and professional values. These values affects workers style of intervention and the skills they use in working with community members.

The value orientation of community organisation as of all social work derives from acceptance of certain concepts and facts as a foundation for work with people. Among these are the essential dignity and ethical worth of the individual, the possession by each individual of potentialities and resources for managing his own life, the importance of freedom to express one’s individuality, the great capacity or growth within all social beings, the right of the individual to those basic physical necessities (food shelter and clothing) without which fulfillment of life is often blocked, the need for the individual to struggle and strive to improve his own life and environment, the right of the individual to help in time of need and crisis, the importance of a social organisation for which the individual feels responsible and which is responsive to individual feeling, the need of a social climate which encourages individual growth and development, the right and responsibility of the individual to participate in the affairs of his community, the practicability of discussion, conference, and consultation as methods for the solution of individual and social problems, “self help” as the essential base of any programme of aid, etc. These and other similar value orientations constitute the basis of community organisation.

1.10 Further Readings

i. Ross, M.G., “Community7 Organisation”, Harper and Row, New York, 1967.

ii. Siddiqui H.Y. “Working with Communities”, Hira Publications, New Delhi, 1997.

iii. Gangrade, K.D., “Community Organisation in India, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1971.

iv. Harper E.B. and Dunham Arthur, “Community Organisation in Action” New York, Association Press, 1959.

v. Journal of community Practice: Organising, Planning, Development and Change, The Haworth Social Work Practice Press.

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Prepared by :

Dr. Suresh Pathare

Lecturer, Department of Social Work,

University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007.





Block 1. Community organization

Unit 3 Community Organization as a method of social work

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Contents

3.0. Aims and Objectives

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Community organization as a macro method

3.3. Community Organization as a problem solving method

3.4. Relevance of Community Organization for community Development

3.5. Distinction between community Organization and community

Development

3.6. Working with Individuals, families, and Groups within the community

3.7. Concept of power

3.8. Dimensions of Power

3.9. Relevance of power in Community Organization

3.10. Barriers of Empowerment

3.11. Let us sum up

3.12. Key Words

3.13. Model Answers

3.14. Further Readings

3.0. Aims and objectives

Aim of this unit is to learn social work intervention with communities and to understand community organization as a method of social work. After studying this unit you will be able to

a. Understand community organization as a method of social work

b. Understand the relevance of community organization for community development

c. Distinguish between Community Organization and Community Development

d. Understand the concept of power in the community

e. Understand the relevance of power in community organization

f. Understand the concept of empowerment

g. Understand the barriers of empowerment

3.1 Introduction

Community Organization is one of the primary methods of social work. It deals with intervention in the communities to solve the community problems. As a method of social work community organization can solve the problems of many people in the community through their collective involvement. Community organization and community development are inter-related as two sides of the same coin. The community organization includes other methods of social work, that is, group work, and casework. The power structure plays a role in the community organization. The social workers need to know the community power structure to practice community organization method. Community organization method is used for empowering people for their development. The details are provided for social work student to understand and practice community organization effectively.

3.2. Community Organization as Macro Method of practice in social work.

Community organization is considered as a Macro method of practice in social work. [Arthur E. Fink] It is used for solving community problems. The term Macro is used because of its ability to involve a large number of people in solving the social problems. Community organization is a macro method because; community organization can be successfully implemented at local level of community, or at state level of community, or at regional level of the community or at very large international level of community. For example, community organization is possible for pollution control at local, state, regional national and inter national levels. It is a macro method because; casework deals with only one person, group work deals with limited number of participants. But community organization deals with number of people and so it is called as macro method. For example, Poverty cannot be solved by using individual approach like casework as there are many people affected by poverty. Individual approach is not practical due to the magnitude of the problem. We have to use a method, which can help a large number of people. While comparing other methods of social work community organization as macro method is useful for solving social problems like poverty.

3.3. Community Organization as a Problem solving method.

In community Organization method the community is the client. Community organization solves the Community Problems and fulfills the needs of the community. Many of the community problems like social injustice, poverty, inadequate housing, poor nutrition, lack of health, lack of medical services, unemployment, pollution, exploitation, bonded labour system, illicit arrack, dowry, female infanticide, women and children trafficking, drug trafficking etc. can be solved by using community organization method. In problem solving generally we use three basic aspects. They are study, diagnosis, and treatment. The problem has to be studied. For this we have to collect information regarding the problem. From the information collected we have to find out the causes. This is called as diagnosis. Based on the findings, or diagnosis a solution is evolved that is called as treatment. We consider this model as medical model because doctors study the patient find out the causes for illness and based on findings, treatment or medicine is provided. Similar model is used in community organization method. Problems are solved with involvement of people. The resources are mobilized to solve the problems. This method is applicable for Indian situations because in India a large number of people are affected by poverty or other poverty related problems. They need solutions. For this community organization as a problem solving method can solve community problems. For example people in the dry area suffer due to lack of water for their cultivation. With the help of the community organizer and people’s participation watersheds can be made and ground water level is increased. Water stored during rainy season can help the people to continue cultivation. Here the whole village problem is related with water for irrigation and drinking purpose, which is solved by using community organization method.

Community Organization method is used for the following:

a. To meet the needs and bring about and maintain adjustment between needs and resources in a community.

b. Helping people effectively with their problems and objectives by helping them to develop, strengthen, and maintain qualities of participation, self-direction and cooperation.

c. Bringing about changes in community and group relationships and in the distribution of decision-making power.

d. The resources of the community are identified and tapped for solving the

community problems.

Check your progress. I

a. What do you understand by Community Organization as a Macro method of practice?

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3.4. The Relevance of Community Organization for community Development.

Community Organization and community Development are interrelated. To achieve the goals of community development the Community Organization method is used. According to United Nations, community development deals with total development of a developing country that is economic, physical, and social aspects. For achieving total development community organization is used. In community development the following aspects are considered as important. The same aspects are also considered as important by community organization. They are,

a. Democratic procedures

b. Voluntary Cooperation

c. Self help

d. Development of leadership

e. Educational aspects.

All the above aspects are related with community organization. [a]Democratic procedures deal with allowing all the community members to participate in decision-making. It is possible to achieve this by community organization. The selected or elected members or representatives are helped to take decisions. Democratic procedures help people to take part in achieving community development goals. Community organization method permits the democratic procedures for people’s participation

[b] Voluntary cooperation means the people are suppose to volunteer for their participation. For this they are convinced. They should feel that they should involve in the process of development without hesitation. This is supported by community organization method. People’s emotional involvement is necessary according to community organization method. If discontentment is created properly then people will volunteer for participation. Community organization emphasizes the discontentment and people’s participation. [c] Self-help is the basis for community development. Self-help deals with the capacity of mobilizing internal resources. Self-help is the basis for self-sufficiency and sustainable development. In community organization self-help is emphasized. Community organization is relevant to community development because both emphasizes the self-help concepts. [f] Development of leadership is an important aspect in community development. Leadership deals with influencing people to achieve the goals. Community organization also emphasizes leadership. With the help of leaders the people are motivated to participate in action. Community organization is a relevant method to develop and use leadership. So it is applicable for community development.[g] Educational aspects in community development means helping people to know, learn, many of the aspects like, democracy, cooperation, unity, skill development, effective functioning etc. In community organization the above mentioned aspects are considered as important. The process of community organization emphasizes education of the community. Thus both are emphasizing educational aspects of the community. Thus community organization and community development are interrelated and relevant. There are no opposing aspects in between community organization and community development and both emphasize the same aspects. Thus they are relevant. So in all community development programmes community organization method is used as implementing method.

3.5. Distinction between Community Organization and Community Development

There are many similarities between community organization and community development. But for theoretical purpose it is possible to differentiate community organization and community development.

a. Community organization is a method of social work but community development is a programme for a planned change.

b. Community organization emphasizes the processes, but community development emphasizes the end or goals

c. Community organizers are mostly social workers and social change agents, But community development personnel can be from other professions like economics, Agricultural experts, veterinary experts, and other technical experts.

d. Community organization is not time bound. It is achieved step by step according to the pace of the people, But community development is time bound and time is specified for achieving the development.

e. In community organization people’s participation is important. But in community development people’s development is important.

f. In community organization government and external agencies assistances are not important and needed. But in community development external especially assistance from the government is considered as important.

g. Community organization is a method of social work and this method is used in many fields, but unlike community organization community development is considered as process, method, programme, and movement for planned change.

h. Community organization is used in all the fields but community development is used in mostly economic development and for the development of living standards of the people.

i. In community organization planning is initiated by the people participation. But in community development planning is carried out by an external agency mostly by the government.

j. In community organization people are organized to solve their problem. But in community development goals have to be achieved and for that people are organized.

k. Community organization is universal to all communities. But community development programmes differ from people to people and according to the nature of the country.

Even though there are differences, both are interrelated. The relationship is so close, so that community organization process and principles are accepted fully. Both are like two sides of same coin. The ideal community development is where community organization method is used without any mistake.

3.6. Working with Individuals, families, and Groups with in the community

Individuals join together and constitute groups and families. Families and groups join together and form communities. While working with communities we have to work with individuals, families, and groups. In actual practice of social work distinction between different practice of social work methods do not have clear boundaries. All are carried out based on the situation. In community organization the organizer has to work with individuals. Individual contact strategy is used to create awareness. Individually people are motivated to accept community goals through education and awareness. Working with individuals takes much time but it is very effective and successful. Working with families and groups cannot be avoided in community organization. Working with many groups is considered as community organization. In the community there are many groups. For achieving the common goals we have to work with different groups. There are many groups in the community involved in different activities. They are dependent on each other for their functioning. The community organizer works with the groups in order to articulate with one other to achieve the goals of the community. Thus the community organizer takes deliberate efforts to influence the unity among individuals, families, and groups. When they unite together they collaborate to achieve the common goals. Groups are considered superior than Individuals in problem solving and action. The groups are better than the average individual but they are not better than the best individual. They may not perform well when compared to one expert. While working with groups there is a possibility of getting variety of opinions and information for community organization. The group members can eliminate the unwanted opinions by group decisions. The individuals can work fast in a group but to involve in work takes some time. Consensus is considered as an ideal way to select among alternatives while working with groups because; the group members commit themselves for the cause or decision. When there are controversial issues among the group members, it is possible to reach a decision by modifying the original decision. Then it is acceptable to all the group members. Thus a community organizer can work with individuals and groups to achieve the community goals. The organizer should know casework and group work skills apart from community organization skills to work with individuals and groups in the community.

Check your progress II

What do you mean by working with individuals and groups to achieve the community

goals?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.7. Concept of power

Power means an ability to influence, in community organization. That is influencing community members to act up on as directed by the leaders to achieve the community goals. The community power aspects can be studied. This is called as power structure of the community. The power structure of the community varies according to the community.

3.8. The Dimensions of Power

According to social workers, power is the ability to influence the beliefs and behavior of others according to wish or plan. In other words, power is the ability to make things happen. Floyd hunter explained the nature of power and power structure. Power appears in numerous forms and in a variety of combinations. Power flows from many sources. The money, votes, laws, information, expertise, prestige, group support, contacts, charisma, communication channels, media, social role, access to rewards, position, titles, ideas, verbal skill, ability to gratify important needs, monopoly of essential resources, alliances, energy, conviction, courage, interpersonal skills, moral convictions, etc. are some of the sources of power. The accumulation of power in a specific area is called as a power center. Power is also distributed. It is not confined within the power center. It is present at every level of the society. The powerless people do have power. They have to discover their power. Power may be ascribed by formal delegation or by title. Power may be achieved by many ways. For example, through competence, ability, or by personality etc. power can be achieved. Generally groups of people are at the top of the community. They are called as power centers at the top of the power pyramid. They influence the community through formal and informal connections. They influence through sub-ordinate leaders who do not participate in community decision-making process. The rich people are mostly powerful. In some communities multiplicity of power structure is noticed. Power structure is also flexible in nature. The community Organizer has to study the following ‘ How do some people influence the action of others? Who wields the power? How? What are the issues? What are the results? These aspects are to be analyzed by the organizer for effective practice of community organization. This is called as community power structure analysis. It is called as power because some people are capable of action in spite of the resistance of others who are participating in the action. Some people are powerful because they knew each other personally and they interact frequently making them involve in joint efforts in community affairs. People with power, make major community decision where as others are active in implementing such decisions. An organizer who is able to study the power structure well can practice community organization effectively. For example, the village traditional leader is a powerful person. The leader can influence other people to act. Many times this leader is motivated to involve in achieving the goals of the community. The leader is capable of influencing people effectively. When there is opposition from a few men, it can be tackled by the leader because the leader has power.

In the community power is distributed. Each power center tries to expand its influence over the distribution of resources and rewards. The various power centers enter into an alliance. They share power, enter into a contract and discharge obligations. Power does not come to the passive, timid, defeated, persons. Energetic, courageous, persons wield it. The people with power tend to join together based on issues. The basis for alliance are ideological, personality similarities, needs, or to achieve the goals. Power possessed is always used. It can be used for achieving the goals. The power can be intellectual, political, social, and psychological power. To retain power there is a need for self-awareness and self control. The decision-making is the source and out come of the power. Some times there is a possibility of many number of power centers. Each power center may be autonomous. The organizer needs knowledge, and ability to mobilize the power in the community for achieving the goals of the community.

There are techniques for mobilization of power.

  1. Appealing to the persons with power, who are related with achieving the goal
  2. Relating the power centers directly to the goal
  3. Developing interdependence among power centers for fulfilling the goals.
  4. Formation of new groups by including members of power centers to achieve the goals.
  5. Encouraging members of power centers to join with other members of power centers to achieve the goal
  6. By using group work methods, new larger power centers can be strengthened to achieve the goals.

Saul Alinsky and Richard Cloward used the changing of power centers. [1960]. The power center change is achieved by institutional changes. Saul Alinsky gave importance for grass-root approach. In grass-root approach lower level people should get deciding power. Power and authority are connected. Authority is the legitimatization of power. These details are used in community organization to achieve people’s participation and successful achievement of the goal.

3.9. The Relevance of power in Community Organization.

Development is influenced by power structures of the community. People who are influential can mobilize a major segment of the community. For example; in fund raising drive some people can move behind other people and institutions. There are two models of community power structure. The stratification model and the pluralist mode are the two models of power structures. Stratification model suggests that social class principally determines the distribution of community power. According to this model the power structure in community is composed of stable upper class elite whose interest and out look on community affairs are relatively homogeneous. According to pluralist model, it rejects the idea that a small homogeneous group dominates community decision-making. But there are numerous small special interest groups that cut across class lines, which are represented in the community decision-making. These are interest groups with overlapping memberships, widely differing power bases, have influences on decisions. Community decisions are the result of the interactions of these different interest groups. This theoretical orientation can help the community organizer in his action. The organizer has to identify the members of the power structure for community organization. Floyd Hunter an executive director of a community welfare council wrote classic volumes on community power structure. His method of locating community elites is known as the reputation approach. The basic procedure is to ask a group of informants who are knowledgeable about the community to list the people they believe to be most influential in the community affairs. There may be variations on this procedure with regard to how informants are selected, and how questions are put in. By tallying those people most frequently named as influential leaders we can identify the core of the community power structure. Position approach is another method of locating the members of the power structure based on the assumption of stratification model. This approach assumes that people holding the highest office in the community are at the top of the power structure. By scanning the executive lists of the important social political and economic organizations in the community, one can quickly compile a list of members of the power structure. This approach requires fewer efforts than the reputation approach. Community power is directly related with Community Organization. Participation of people is related with power. In Community Organization community power holders are involved to induce people’s participation in order to achieve the organizations objectives. Some times if the existing power centers are not for Community Organizational objectives, then a new center of power is created to get people’s commitment and mass participation. The organizer needs to study power structure and Community Organization process is carried out successfully through leaders. For example, people are organized to implement family planning. For this the leader is motivated for people’s participation. In some villages the leader opposes family planning. In this situation the community organizer has to identify a new powerful leader to implement family planning. Other wise it is not possible to implement family planning in the village.

3.10. Barriers of empowerment

Generally poor people have the feeling of powerlessness. These people can be helped to feel powerful to decide their own affairs using community organization. When they learn to solve their problems they feel powerful. We can develop confidence and capacity building so that they feel that they can solve their problems by themselves. In community organization, the people carry out decision-making. This provides them with a sense of empowerment. Empowerment deals with providing disadvantaged groups with a powerful instrument for articulating their demands and preferences by awareness, decision-making capacity and to achieve their goal with freedom. Community Organization results in empowerment of the people. But there are some hindrances like fatalism, illiteracy, superstitions, and caste divisions etc. Some times the vested interested groups may be a hindrance or barriers for empowerment. The Community dependence, long time effect of poverty, and wrong beliefs etc., act as barriers to empowerment. When people are organized, they get the power. There are leaders in the community, they are united, they can work together, and they can co ordinate with each other. This makes them feel powerful. Thus community organization results in empowerment of people. The empowerment helps the community to stand against exploitation, ability to solve problems, and to achieve the desired goals. Many of the economic problems can be easily solved by community organization and empowerment of community.

Check your progress III

What do you understand by Community Power Structure?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.11. Let us sum up.

In this unit we have discussed about community organization as a macro method of social work, the relevance of community organization for community development. The differences between community organization and community development are listed. The importance of working with individuals’ families and groups has been discussed. Toward the end of the unit, the power structure, and its relevance to community organization are discussed. All these information will be useful for successful community organization.

3.12. Keywords

Achieved power means the power that is gained by the efforts of an individual.

Ascribed power means the power, which is delegated, to an individual by others.

Community development means a total development of a developing community in economic, physical and social aspects by pooling their resources.

Empowerment: Creating awareness and providing ability to decide and act upon for their development

Grass root approach means lower level people getting the deciding power or empowerment of lower level people.

Macro method: Large scale utilization of method that is used for solving community problems

Pluralist model of power means many small interest groups holding power

Power is an ability to influence the beliefs and behavior of others to achieve the wish or plan.

Power center means the specific person who accumulates the power.

Power structure: Structure of the influencing people in the community

Stratification model of power means a few people of upper class elite holding power

Voluntary cooperation means people who decide to work by their own decision and work with the community organizer and other members of the community.

3.13.Model answers.

Check your progress I

a. What do you understand by Community Organization as a Macro method of practice?

Community organization is considered as a macro method of practice because it is used for solving community problems. A large number of people are involved and problems of large number of people are solved, so it is called as a macro method of practice.

Check your progress II

What do you mean by working individuals and groups to achieve the community goals?

Community organizer takes deliberate efforts to influence the individuals and groups to unite together for achieving common goals. The organizer should know how to work in a group work situation. This will help to unite different groups to work together.

Check your progress III

What do you understand by Community Power Structure?


Power means the ability to influence others to carry out an action. Community power structure deals with, who influences? How? What for? What is the result of the influence? What are the other details related to usage of power? Etc.

3.14.Further Readings:

1.Chekki A. Dan, 1979. Community Development, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

2.Cox.M.Fred and Erlich L. John, 1987, Strategies of Community organization, F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. Illinois.

3.Fink E. Arthur, 1978, The Fields of Social work, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York

4.Murray G. Ross.1955 Community Organization. Harper and row Publishers. New York.

5.Ralph M. Kramer 1975 Readings in Community Organization practice Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey

6.Rex a. Skidmore, 1976 Introduction to Social work, Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey

UNIT – 4 CURRENT ISSUES IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION


Contents

4.0 Aims and Objectives

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Gender Sensitive Community Organization Practice; Gender Caste and Class as axis of inequality, Factionalism and protecting the rights of marginalized groups;

4.3 Impact of Macro Policies

4.4 Unionization strategies

4.5 Dealing with authorities

4.6 Protests and demonstrations

4.7 Let us Sum up

4.8 Key Words

4.9 Suggested Readings

4.10 Model Answers


4.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


The social life of the people is affected by the kind of community in which they live. With the advancement of science our life has become complex. Self-sufficiency of village communities has broken down. Social institutions like family, joint family, caste system, village panchayat, private property, education etc. have undergone changes. And are not able to meet the changing demands of the individual and community. This unit aims at giving you a broad understanding of current issues in community organization. After going through this unit you would be able to:

Ø explain the gender and gender injustice,

Ø describe the concept of caste and class and their functions,

Ø pinpoint the types of inequalities perpetuating in the community,

Ø analyse the implications of Macro policies on people and

Ø trace out ways and means to deal with factionalism and authorities for protecting the rights of marginalized group.


4.1 INTRODUCTION


The communities of toady are facing lots of challenges. The ancient social relations, emotional bonds and sentimental ties are no more significant and visible. The community consciousness is rapidly lowering down. Dirty politics has housed into the peaceful life of the community people and they are divided into different political groups and sub-groups. The joint family system is fast disintegrating and strains on human mind are increasing. Communal disharmony, gender inequality, factionalism, protection of rights of marginalized groups, feelings of deprivations among different classes like cultivators, industrial workers, daily wage earners, alteration of property relations in favour of the less privileged and impact of macro policies at micro levels are the some current issues which require immediate intervention while working with communities, institutions and organizations. This unit gives you a broad understanding of issues, which are affecting the dynamics of the healthy life styles and functioning of the communities and organizations. Let us now understand the meaning of gender, difference between gender and sex, gender system and its elements and impact of gender system on women inequalities.


4.2.1 GENDER SENSITIVE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION PRACTICE


The Oxford dictionary meaning of gender is sexual classification i.e. male and female. But gender is not biological attribute. It is created by the society as a set of system. There is a need of a ‘system of equal existence’ of ‘Men’ and ‘Women’. Unfortunately, our present system is involved in developing its own set of rules, which is basically responsible for discrimination and injustice of women and girl child in our society.


4.2.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GENDER AND SEX


Gender

Sex

Socially defined

Biologically defined

Socio-cultural difference

Natural difference

Made by the society

Naturally made.

Variable

Constant

Gender gives different values to Men and Women. The biological sex differences are accepted as correct indicator for differential male-female access and their participation in the society.


4.2.3 GENDER SYSTEM


Our society is organized around some given parameters and aims, the functionality of which is ensured by a set of systems and institutions. For instance, marriage and family life are ingrained aspects of the Indian Society. Girls and boys get married and start their own families living within the prescribed norms that determine choice of marriage partner, their roles, code of conduct (fidelity, chastity, girl’s subservience to her husband and in-laws), life-style and practices (such as purda, male inheritance, dowry etc.). One of the most pervasive and widespread codes of organization that affects all aspects of social functioning is the gender system. It is patriarchy that provides the life force to the unfavourable conditions that woman face. Let us try and list out some of the more common features of gender system.

Male-Female differentiation:

The practices of male-female differentiation form the core of a gender-based system. Biological sex differences, which are real, are extended to be the criteria for social placement.

Allocation of Roles:

In any organization or society roles are attributed for specific function. In a patriarchy, roles are allocated not only in accordance with the biological functions (procreation), but are misappropriated according to values prescribed to male and females. Within patriarchy ‘dominating and controlling social functions are prescribed for males whereas ‘supportive functions are the purview of the females. Thus, by birth, the males are ‘inheritors of resources’, performing the functions of earners and by birth the females are ‘family caretakers’ performing the functions of ‘child nurturing and running the householder’.

Gender-based hierarchical placement:

Alongwith role allocation certain norms and values, as well as practices and beliefs, further promote the ‘male-female superior-inferior or hierarchy’, whereby males have access to land holdings inheritance, skills, productive employment and the associated high status, women, on the other hand are denied even life (female infanticide / foeticide), receive poor nutrition and medical care, inferior education and suffer atrocities such as eve teasing, rape, wife-beating etc.


4.2.4 ELEEMENTS OF THE GENDER SYSTEM:


Role Stereotyping

The female biological functions of reproduction are extended to rearing of children and catering to household work. On the other hand the role of the male is to earn for the family. Accordingly, both sexes are socialized to these predetermined but separate roles. Even in society where both men and women are called upon to earn, the primary roles associated with social values have remained unchanged. Thus even if women earn an income, their responsibility towards household chores remains undiminished.

Child preference on the basis of sex

The corresponding social status availed by the male due to his being the inheritor, the protector of the family and its interest, the “doer”, a male child is valued. Moreover, it is the sons who are an old age insurance for the parents, since the daughters get married and leave the family. Besides, daughter implies expenses such as dowry. Thus a male child is preferred by society. In fact, male child preference is so strong that in certain areas a wife who does not produce a male child is called ‘Kulachhani’, destroyer of the family since name will not be carried forward.


4.2.5 IMPACT OF THE GENDER SYSTEM ON WOMEN


The practice of male-female differentiation results in structural deprivation of the female (of life-female foeticide / infanticide – of access to health and medical services, inheritance, education etc.). Female discrimination at the behavioural level (un-employment, low productivity skills, health care, public life etc.) and infliction of atrocities (dowry harassment, eve-teasing, wife beating, rape etc.). The structural conditions affect society as a whole where as behavioural manifestations affect individual in specific situation.


4.2.6 CASTE AND CLASS AS AXIS OF INEQUALTY:


Caste and class both are status groups. A status group is an association of individuals who enjoy a distinctive style of life and a certain consciousness of kind. However, castes are perceived as hereditary groups with a fixed ritual status while classes are defined in terms of the relations of production. The members of a class have a similar socio-economic status in relation to other classes in the society, while the members of a caste have either a high or a low ritual status in relation to other castes.

Caste as a Unit and as a System

Caste is considered viewed both as a unit and as a system. It is also understood as a structural phenomenon as well as a cultural phenomenon. As a unit, caste can be defined as a ‘closed rank status group’, that is a group in which the status of the members, their occupation, the field of mate selection and interaction with others is fixed. As a system, it refers to interrelated status and patterned interaction among castes in terms of collectivity of restrictions, namely, restriction on change of membership, occupation, marriage and communal relations. In viewing caste as a system, there is pre-supposition that no caste can exist in isolation and that each caste is closely involved with other castes in the network of economic, political, and ritual relationships. The ‘closed-rank group’ feature of caste also explains its structure. As a cultural phenomenon, caste may be viewed as a “ set of values. Beliefs and practices.”


4.2.7 CLASS


A social class is “one of two or more broad groups of individual who are ranked by the members of the community in socially superior and inferior positions.” (Ginsberg, Morris: 1961) Thus, in a social class there is –

Ø a feeling of equality in relation to members of one’s own class.

Ø a consciousness that one’s mode of behaviour will harmony with the behaviour of similar standards of life.

Ø individuals belonging to the same social class are expected to maintain similar standards of life, and

Ø to choose their occupations within a limited range

Ø there is realization of similarity of attitude and behaviour with the members of one class.

Ø there is a feeling of inferiority in relation to those who stand above in the social scale

Ø there is a feeling of superiority to those below in social hierarchy.


4.2.8 AXIS OF INEQUALITY OF CASTE AND CLASS


If we look at our society, we find that people are divided in categories (in castes and classes) on the basis on birth, religion, race, language and speech, education, occupation and wealth etc. and society is heterogeneous in nature. Individuals are placed higher or lower in a status scale based on these characteristics. Thus social barriers are erected in the way of lower category (caste and class) people’s overall development. This has given birth to several inequalities:

Caste

  • restricts mobility of working class especially of marginalized.
  • Leads to untouchability, slavery and is responsible for many other social evils and vices like child marriage, dowry system, purda system and casteism.
  • responsible for low status of women.
  • is bed-rock of religious discrimination and fundamentalism.

Class

  • The dream to alter property-relations in favour of less privileged has yet to see ray of the day.

Further the persisting inter and intra-caste, class and community inequalities as well as wide spread unrest are also result of prevailing contradictions in our social system. Such as:

  • We continue to follow the traditional values whereas our roles have become modern.
  • We profess that India is committed to bring equality but in reality it is mired in an age-old system of caste and class.
  • We claim ourselves as rationalist but we bear with injustice and unfairness with fatalistic resignation.
  • We speak in favour of individualism but we reinforce collectivism.
  • Inspite of formulation of so many laws and modification of old laws, the common people have not been benefitted from these because they are either not being implemented or are full of loopholes which have benefitted only to legal profession.

Check your progress I

1. Indicate if the following statements are true or false. Put a ( Ö ) in the relevant box.

Check your answer with the one given at the end of the unit. True False

(a) Gender is a biological classification.

(b) The codes of the organization that affect all aspects of social functioning

is the gender system.

(c) Even if women earn an income, their responsibility towards household

chores remains unchanged.

(d) Classes are considered as hereditary groups.

(e) Caste is responsible for low status of women.

(f) Society is heterogeneous is nature.

(g) Caste promotes optimum productivity.

2. Give the main difference between –

(a) Gender and Sex

(b) Caste and Class

Hint. See section 4.2

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. Enlist any five practices of castes and class system, which promote inequalities in society.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..


4.2.9 FACTIONALISM


Factionalism is a situation / condition in which ‘sub-castes’ (within the caste) function as ‘factions’ (conflict groups) than as ‘caste groups’ to achieve their purpose. Prof. K. N. Sharma has termed them ‘resource groups’ with a view to lay stress on their collaborative function. Occasionally, the ‘alliance’ between the groups is restricted only for the duration of achievement of the purpose. Mostly families are engaged in such alliances. Nevertheless, in some cases even brothers of same families have joined various factions and have disassociated themselves from each other at the cost of their kinship relationships.

The faction (within the sub-caste) is an association of a few core families to face challenges from other families, or to secure help in court cases, and so on. Such factions / alliances can be seen in the evening when people come back from their fields or offices and cluster in small groups to spend together their leisure time. In this way the closeness with the group is strengthened daily by intimate and informal relations and its strength is activated time to time for status defense or exaggeration. A faction may continue for decades or for few years or few months or it may change unexpectedly as no hard and fast rules ties the members together. However, within the faction, caste / sub-caste are of notable significance in towns and cities.

The strength of the factions depends on wealth, manpower and ability to mobilize resources and influence from outside the village.

Now a days, factionalism has become a serious problem and posing a serious threat to the traditional unity and solidarity of our village and tribal communities.

The legal sanction accorded to various types of leadership positions in the Panchayati Raj system, under 73 Constitutional Amendment Act, is not so much beneficial. Rather, it has widely, very strongly and seriously hampered all the efforts to promote development of villages in the country. As they (factions) oppose one another, not because of any genuine reason or rhyme but simply for the sake of showing the opposition and demonstration of their strength. As a consequence, any effort made by any change agent- external or internal, to promote co-operative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community, gets badly thwarted.


4.2.10 PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF MARGINALISE GROUPS.


Marginalized People:

The people of marginalized groups do not form a compact territorial community. They are forced to live wretchedly, enduring exploitation, oppression, violence and numerous indignities. Those groups in society who, due to poverty, culture, language, religion, migrant status or other disadvantages have not been much benefitted from health, education, employment and other developmental opportunities. Most of them are the landless labourers, rural poors with small piece of land, artisans, workers in unorganized sectors, women, S.Cs and S.Ts etc.

Existing Provisions for Protection of Rights of Marginalized:

Although government has made various constitutional, legal and non-legal socio-economic provisions to safeguard the interests of marginalized people and to ensure their overall development, even then, their condition is not significantly changed. The concept of social justice is also stirring the government and people into new and more vital fields of state action to make available the benefits of ‘Welfare State’ to various sections of the society, specially to marginalized people. Various laws relating to payment of wages, social security, regulatory legislations and social justice etc. have been enacted fixing the working hours, minimum wages of labourer and to improve their working conditions. Further numerous laws meant for land reforms- Ceiling, Consolidation, Land Alienation, Credit facility and debt relief have been passed. Besides these different social security, income generating and village infra-structure development schemes and programmes have been implemented. Mention may be made of –

1. Constitutional Provisions:

  • Fundamental Rights and Duties
  • Directive Principles of State Policy

2. Legal and Non-legal Socio-economic Provisions

  • Payment of wages Act 1936 & 1971
  • Minimum Wages Act – 1948
  • Equal Remuneration Act – 1978
  • Contract labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act 1971 & 1986
  • Bonded Labour Act 1976
  • Inter-state Migration Act 1979
  • Civil Rights Protection Act 1955
  • SCs and STs (Atrocities Protection) Act 1989

(iii) Commissions Programmes and Schemes:

  • National Commission for SCs and STs.
  • 20 points economic programmes
  • National Schemes for liberation and rehabilitation of scavengers and their dependents 1992
  • Special Area Development Programmes (like DPAP, DDP, IWDP, HADP, CADP and ITADP)
  • Minimum Needs Programmes
  • National Social Assistance Programmes (such as NOPS, NFBS, NMBS and Annapurna etc.)

Lapses in Existing Provisions and Programmes

  • The existing communication channels for creating awareness and sensitization are not adequate and effective and do not reach to marginalize people.
  • Lack of integrated approach in macro-policies in tackling the issues related to marginalized people.
  • Lack of strong and effective organizational support to voice their concerns and lobbying for them.

Steps be taken to protect the Rights of Marginalized

Inspite of all these initiatives taken by the government, we find that the needs and problems of marginalized people in India are not resolved satisfactorily. Their needs and problems are multifarious and multi-dimensional in nature. These can be tackled by changing the attitudes of the society as well as nation towards marginalized people. Therefore, for protecting the rights of marginalized people following suggestions / measures can be effective and useful.

1. They should be sensitized about their conditions / situations and other factors responsible for their deplorable conditions.

2. They should be made aware of their constitutional and legal rights both in their work and in social sphere.

3. Training for skills development and income generation is another crucial aspect. Training must be provided on occupations which pre-suppose training. The duration of training may vary from 1 to 6 months with the nature of the chosen occupations to equip them with new methods, techniques and skills for increasing their earnings. Further since they are daily wage earners, they should be paid for their wages loss during training period either in cash or in kind to create interest in training programmes.

4. There should be provision of counselling services on all family, community and other socio-economic issues.

5. There is need to build, strengthen and utilize the fullest capabilities of Village Community Organizations (V.C.Os) in rural development specially for the upliftment of marginalized groups.

6. Pleading for setting up of (free or nominal fee paid) Legal Aid Counselling Centres at district / Taluka and block level by the government and / or N.G.Os with effective monitoring system.

7. To develop right from grass-root level to national level organizations of these people for protection and promotion of their rightful claims and to provide them guidance required for this organized struggle.

Check your Progress II

Notes: (a) Write your answer on a separate sheet, as the space below is inadequate.

(b) Check your answers with the one given at the end of the unit.

(1) What do you understand by Factionalism? Discuss its purpose and basis of coming into existence.

(2) Who are called marginalized people? List out any five measures taken by the government to protect the rights of this group. (Hint: Section 4.10)




4.3 Impact of Macro-Policies:

Everyone agrees that the process of globalization has increased the gap between rich and poor greater, both within and between the countries. The ideology associated with globalization is that of ‘market forces’ economics. Government action and control is now seen as the cause of inflation, debt and economic recession while the private sector is promoted as the creator of efficiency and growth. Global and national thinking and policy is therefore oriented towards privatization, liberalization and subsidization, regulation and promotion of national enterprise are frowned upon. Declining international assistance and increasing debt forced many governments to accept conditions imposed by the World Bank and World Trade Organization. Some of these conditions that have specific reference to India include:

· Removal of subsidy on agriculture.

· Embargo on import restriction.

· Abolition of Public distribution system.

· Allowing entry of foreign MNCs into India.

· Acceptance of intellectual properties rights.

· Cancellation of the Indian patents Acts.

Keeping in view the above facts, we can say that the international institutions like International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organization have deeply influenced the policies and programmes of our nation in their interests as well as in the interest of developed countries which have badly affected the people in general and marginalized in particular, namely -

1. The ‘growth centered model’ for development aimed only at economic growth and increased Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. But it could achieve these at great social and environmental costs. Within three decades, it became obvious that the dominant model had by passed large sections of society, leading to greater disparity, further marginalizing the deprived sections. The special programmes initiated for the vulnerable sections failed to make an impact because the people were treated as mere ‘beneficiaries’ and ‘objects’ of development.

2. Thus the ‘trickle down theory’ adopted by the ‘dominating power structure’ did not entail the desired development and the number of people below the poverty line increased. In the name of development nature, has been exploited to the fullest, irreparably damaging the environment. Concentration and control of resources now lies in the hands of a few individuals, while the majority of the population are silent ‘recipients’ of the programmes.

3. The ‘Green Revolution’ has further marginalized the small and marginal farmers who became landless in the process. These farmers, unable to utilize the new technology, sold their land to large land owners. The later in turn became richer by drawing the benefits of subsidies offered by the Government.

4. Due to the Indian economy’s added emphasis on industrialization, there has been a strong urban and rural bias. The rural agricultural economy suffered so much that migrants flocked to cities in search of employment. As cities did not have the capacity to accommodate a large population, problems relating to health, sanitation, education, consumerism and unemployment increased the inequality, already existing in the cities.

5. Rapid advancement in technology, which plays a vital role in profit maximization, has further marginalized weaker and vulnerable sections of Indian Society.

6. Moreover, the development of many high yielding and refined verities of food grains developed by rich countries which can be used only for consumption purposes and not as seeds to be sown in the field, have further worsened the situation through monopolization of the seed market in developing countries like India in which farmers are compelled to purchase seeds at very high prices and are compelled by exigencies of the situation to sell their produce at throwaway prices.

7. Even essential life saving drugs have been monopolized by developed nations and they are being sold in beyond the affording capacity of common man to purchase them

8. The pressure of the World Bank to withdraw all kinds of subsidies, thus, far enjoyed by people in India in diverse fields like fertilizers, electricity, petrol, diesel, etc. has added to the economic burden to be shouldered by the common people in the country particularly marginal and small farmers and small scale entrepreneurs. This has adversely affected the production and distribution of various types of goods and services.

Check your progress III

a) Use the space given below for your answer.

b) Check your answers with the model answers given at the end of this unit.

1. Name those international organizations that have deeply affected our macro policies and programmes.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Choose the appropriate word for each blank from the group of words given below.

Market Forces, dominating power structure, vulnerable sections, Rural Agricultural, Environmental Crisis, Technology, cities in search of jobs, Ecological balance, Marginalization, Small and Marginal farmers, Utilize the new technology.

I. The ideology associated with globalization is that of ………. Economics.

II. The trickle down theory adopted by the ………………. did not entail the desired development.

III. The special programmes initiated for the development of ………….failed to make any impact.

IV. The Green Revolution has further marginalized IV(a)…………… as they were unable to IV(b)……………

V. V(a) The …………economy suffered so much that migrants flocked to V(b)……………..

VI. Rapid advancement in VI(a)………plays a vital role in VI(b)………… of weaker and vulnerable sections.

VII. Unplanned exploitation of natural resources has badly disturbed the VII(a) ……….. and created as serious VII(b)……………


4.4 UNIONIZATION STRATEGIES:


Unionization is the process of organizing the unorganized people for their specific goal and interest. In unionization the oppressed, exploited, weaker, vulnerable and marginalized people (this includes individual(s), group(s) and / or community(ies) voluntarily organize themselves in union(s) on the basis of equality to identify and rank their needs / problems / issues; to secure their essential demands; to protect and promote their interests by collective action; accepting the principle of majority rule and maximum participation of community people in each and every step of community organization and development process.

Whereas an overall approach to bring change in the situation may be termed as ‘strategy’. It includes roles for worker and client, tasks to be performed by each and every one and methods and techniques to be used.

In order to unionize target i.e. community people, the following strategies of unionization, which can be practiced. Let us now discuss some of these strategies:

· Information collection and community meetings.

· Conscientisation

· Formation of plans and programmes (through P.R.A).

· Capacity Building

· Collaboration and co-ordination

· Networking

Information Collection and Community Meetings:

This deals with organizing formal and informal meetings of community people. Visiting and observing the community for gathering the different information. Besides these it includes:

a) Identification and prioritization / ranking of needs / problems / issues and stakeholders.

b) Creation of awareness about these felt needs / priorities of problems and consciousness among community people.

c) Identification of Nucleus / resource persons / opinion leaders and formal and informal leaders of various socio-cultural / vocational groups and sub-groups.

Conscientisation:

The strategy is based on Paulo Friere’s approach of generating awareness and sensitization among masses through education. In his opinion, if people were motivated to analyse their own reality, they could be active participants in transforming it. The consciousness gained through the critical process of reasoning and reflection leads to action that in turn can reduce the exploitative tendencies in the present economic structure.

Planning and formulation of plans and Programmes (through P.R.A.):

Planning involves the entire act right from the starring of consciousness regarding a problem to the steps taken to resolve that problem. This can at least be achieved by having rapport with the people and involving them in designing the development of project. To meet this specific need of the people application of Participatory Rural Appraisal Technique (PRA) is required.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (P.R.A):

P.R.A. is seen as a family of methods and approaches to enable local people to analyze, plan and act based on their own life situation and knowledge. This includes:

i) Village census mapping

ii) Resource mapping and institutional mapping

iii) Village transect walk

iv) Time line

v) Trend Diagram

vi) Matrix and Wealth mapping

Capacity Building:

As the capacity of poor people is strengthened (by utilizing and improving their skills, changing their perceptions and attitudes and ensuring their active participation as responsible participator) and their voice begin to be heard, they become “ claimants” who are capable of demanding and paying for goods and services from government and private sector agencies. Under these changed circumstances, the mechanisms to satisfy their needs will change as well.

Collaboration and Co-ordination:

When two or more persons (i.e. helpers) working jointly on the basis of a common plan of action, then it is called collaboration. In collaboration each one of the helpers are accountable for certain aspects of work / service to a client. They may belong to one agency or many agencies; they may be social workers and / or may be from several other professional disciplines. Thus we can say that it is a medium of integration of various services being provided, description of role and services to be delivered by each of the participant, and making sure that conflicting and confusing messages are not given to clients.

Whereas in Co-ordination, two or more service providers work together. This does not involve a common action plan; in fact, there may be two or more action plans. For effective co-ordination, spirit of working together towards a desirable end is must. Further, the mutual satisfaction of all concerned persons and agencies involved in it is an important aspect.

Networking

Networking is also the social work strategy practiced to bring diverse social structures together to accomplish a common purpose or shared goal. Networking involves establishing coordinated and collaborative relationships in order to access the resources of other persons and social systems. Social workers network human service organizations, other social structures like business and industry and influential community leaders. Networking promotes collaboration in identifying service gaps and barriers and encourages inter-agency planning to address unmet service delivery needs.

Although, the problem of unionizing / organizing the poor is complicated. But there are examples where the poor have organized themselves on the basis of common economic interests and thereby developing a counter weight that offsets their lingering import once in local government or by formation of restrictive organizations based on interest groups, small farmers, co-operatives, landless workers, unions, association of women organization, rural youth brigrades or through organization of political disadvantaged for direct political action as in case of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu. Similar kinds of experiment may be found in Anand Dairy, Gujarat, Sri Lanka, Commilla project of Bangladesh, Mauritus and Burma in addition to China.


4.5 Dealing with Authorities:

Authorities are those persons, who have power to give order and make other to obey. They are various segments of the government and non-government officials, responsible for policy and plan formulation, implementation, maintenance of law and order (with peace and harmony) and provide justice to its people.

In other words, authorities have to ensure conducive environment for holistic and sustainable development of people, right from the small village level to the Nation as a whole. But it could not happen so, due to ‘ego-centric’ style of functioning of the authorities, instead of ‘people-centric’ style. As a result of it, the majority of people are in a pitiable situation. For improving their conditions and providing their dues to them, the following strategies can be practiced to deal with authorities as and when required;

(i) Submission of petition

(ii) Persuation

(iii) Bargaining

(iv) Negotiation

(v) Lobbying and Advocacy

(vi) Conflictual / Confrontational strategies

Submission of Petition: Submission of petition is a formal written application (which contains mainly in very brief the issues and problems, their nature and extent of peoples’ suffering) signed by affected and/or interested persons and appealing the concern authority to solve the problem on sustainable ground. This petition is submitted to related officials.

Persuation: After submission of petition to concern authority when no response is received from him / her then persuation strategy is used. In persuation efforts are made to influence the individual to change their outlook by providing them needed information. This also involves the adoption of set of actions / procedures to bring about change by arguing, giving reasoning, urging and inducing others to accept a viewpoint and resolve the issues / problems.

Bargaining: Bargaining is a process of discussion and negotiation between two parties, one or both of which is a group of persons acting in concert. The resulting bargain is an undertakings as to terms and conditions under a continuing service is to be performed. (Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences).

Negotiation: In negotiation communication linkage is established between two or more than two groups having disagreement on a particular issue / problem. The communication linkages are established so that the concerned groups are able to icon-out their difficulties, understand each others point of view. And come out that mutually acceptable decision. The community organizer may act as negotiator if it is acceptable to all the concerned parties. Besides it, he facilitates such development so that the rival groups can come on the same platform to workout their differences.

Lobbying and Advocacy: Lobbying is a technique of influencing the legislation and creating legislative opinion favourable to the group or interest on behalf of which the lobby operates. Instead of attempting to influence legislation directly, the lobbyist may use the technique of pressure group lobbing. Wherein the pressure group seek to create an appearance of broad public support for its aims. This appearance may be genuine or artificial. Anyhow the aim is to influence the legislative policy.

Advocacy involves ‘pleading and fighting for the service of the clients, whom the service system otherwise rejects. It requires seeking different interpretations or exceptions to rules and regulations, to clients’ rights to services and undertaking aware above the blockages to clients in receiving or using an agency’s services. In advocacy, the worker speaks on behalf of client. Before engaging in advocacy a worker must first be sure that the client(s) desire(s) the worker to intervene in this manner. The client should clearly understand the risks involved and be motivated to use the service(s) if it is obtained. Secondly, the worker must carefully assess the risks involved for the client if advocacy is used.

Conflictual / Confrontational Strategies: The basic hypothesis, on which the conflictual and confrontational strategy is practised, is that those who are in favour of status quo and those who are in favour of change, fight with each other. Hence, the dynamics of conflict is inevitable in the process of community organization and action initiative. This may invite agitational techniques like protest, demonstration and civil disobedience or direct action etc.

However, it must be remembered that it is easier to mobilize people through protests and demonstration than civil disobedience or direct action etc.


4.6 Protests and Demonstrations

When people are dissatisfied with social institutions that frustrate them and their needs as well. As a consequence, they have desire to change that social institutions because they are not able to solve their social problem. This situation creates social tension, unrest and instability among them and leads to social movement. Thus social movements could be looked upon as collective efforts to change the society. Generally these are started by those, who are shocked by social injustices. Social Movement can be seen in shape of protests, demonstrations marches, rioting and rebellion etc.

Protest:

Protest is verbal, written and / or legal expression of dissent, disagreement or disapproval of any imposition of official policy / curtailment of facility/ increasement of tax or any other unwarranted condition by the government/ organization / association or group of people or by the existing system.

It is an effort to block the proposed change or to uproot a change already achieved. It is observed that in protest victimization is the cause and victims are the potential protesters.

The following are some common features of protest:

1. Protest is primarily an expression of feelings.

2. This expression may be verbal in writing or through legal way.

3. The main purpose of protest is to oppose or to disapprove the action initiated by the government, institution or existing social system.

4. The reason of protest is victimization of people in general or some section of the people.

5. Victims actively participate in the protest as ‘potential protesters’.

6. Protest remains sectional rather than general.

7. Community as a whole is not mobilized around social cause(s).

Demonstrations:

Demonstration is a method of expression of peoples’ sentiments / emotions and feelings readily in favour / support of or in against the government / public organizations / institutions or associations. In demonstration the individuals gather together to give expression or to manifest their demands or sentiments. The members of demonstrative group are interested more in voicing their grievance, than in destruction, by organizing meetings, rally or public marches.

The demonstrative crowd may turn into an aggressive / protestive crowd if any effort is made to disperse it by violence means. It enables the group to understand better the cause of a problem and also results in an action.

A good demonstration:

· should be based on problem(s)/situation(s) which is important and true to the real life of the audience.

· is in which it should be decided first, what is to be exactly conveyed to the audience.

· makes the message easier to understand and accept.

· facilitates clarifications and discussion among people.

· generates sympathetic and favourable environment.

· includes the preparation of exhibits (like Posters, Charts, Placards and Banmers etc.) that are required for the same.

· is in which locally available cheap and best materials are effectively and impressively used to reduce the unnecessary expenses and generates peoples’ appreciation.

Check your Progress IV

Note:

(a) Use the space given below for your answer.

(b) Check your answer with model answers given at the end of this unit

1. Bring out the distinguishing features of Unionization strategies.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Point out the strategies, which are used to deal with authorities.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. List out any five attributes of Demonstration and protest.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


4.7 Let us Sum Up:

In this unit, you have learned the meaning of gender, castes and classes, difference between gender and sex, concept of gender system and its elements and prevailing inequalities in the communities due to gender, castes and classes.

You saw that how different factions promote factionalism. And now a days, it has threatened the traditional unity and solidarity of our rural and urban communities. We have also discussed the meaning of marginalized people, existing constitutional, legal and non-legal socio-economic provisions to safeguard the interests of marginalized people, lacunas in these and steps are to be taken to protect their rights. We have attempted to acquaint you with the impact of macro-policies on general masses especially on marginalized people.

For your understanding, we have explained different strategies like unionization, dealing with authorities, protests and demonstration. Unionization includes mainly conscientisation. Formulation of plans and programmes preferably through P.R.A., Capacity Building, Collaboration, Co-ordination and Networking. Dealing with authorities incorporates. Submission of petition, persuasion, bargaining, negotiation, lobbying and advocacy and conflictual / confrontational strategies. The basic features of protests and demonstration and their effective use have been described. Usually protests and demonstration generate sympathetic and favourable environment.


4.8 Key Words:


Globalization: this term is used for the move towards a global economy where borders cease to matter.

Green Revolution: Green Revolution is the term, which has been used for describing the manifold increase in India’s farm production and productivity, particularly in the case of the major cereal crops, consequent to the adoption of the ‘New Agricultural Policy’ since late sixties.

Macro Policies: The policies which affect the large sections of population and which relate to production and income, improvement in quality of life and overall development etc.

Patriarchy: This may be defined as

· Rule of Father

· System of male domination where men are considered as superior.

· Greater access to resources and decision making process.

· The patriarchal structure or system is based on the ideology of man’s superiority.

Social system: A system is composed of interrelated and interdependent parts (persons and sub systems).

Trickle Down Theory: Trickle Down Theory emphasized on the growth in Gross National Product and it was assumed till the third Five Year Plan that the benefit of Gross National Product would percolate down to the masses and enhance their income levels. But it could not happened as assumed.


4.9 Suggested Readings:

Cox, F.M. et al (Ed). (1987): Strategies of Community Organization: A book of Readings, 4th ed. Itasca, 12, FE Peacock.

Dubey Muchkund(ed). (1995): Indian Society Today: Challenges of Equality, Integration and Empowerment, New Delhi: Har Anand Publication.

Gangrade, K.D. (1971): Community Organization in India, Bombay: Popular Prakashan.

Ghurya, G.S. (1961): Class, Caste and Occupation, Bombay: Oxford University Press.

Pascual Gisbert S.J. (1999): Fundamentals of Sociology Hyderabad: Orient Logman Ltd., IIIrd Edition.

Pathania, Sunita (1999): “Globalization, Culture and Gender: Some issues: Globalizaion, Culture and Women Development, Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Paulo Freire (1992): Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Penguin Book.

Siddique, H.Y. (1997): Working the Communities: An Introduction to Community Work, New Delhi: Hira Publications.


4.10 Model Answers

Check your progress I

1. (a) False (b) True (c) True (d) False (e)True (f) False (g) False

2. (a) Difference between Gender and Sex can be identified as -

Gender

Sex

is socially defined

is biologically defined

talks about socio-cultural difference

talks about natural difference

is made by society

is naturally made

is variable

is constant

2. (b) Difference between Caste and Class are as follows:

Caste

Class

is understood as hereditary group

is understood in terms of relations of production

has fixed ritual status

has no ritual status

the members of a caste follow either a high or low ritual status in relation to other castes

the members of a class maintain a similar socio-economic status in relation to other class in society.

does not require any subjective consciousness within the members

Consciousness is required for continuing in a class

3. Caste and Class are basically responsible for perpetuating inequalities in the society such as they:

(a) are responsible for low status of women.

(b) deny equal rights to all irrespective of their caste creed, colour and class.

(c) develop a feeling of deprivation among various lower castes and classes especially among marginalized class.

(d) are to be questioned for non-alteration of property relations in favour of less privileged castes and classes people.

(e) promote slavery and many other social evils and vices.

Check your progress II

1. Factionalism may be termed as a situation in which ‘Sub-castes’ (within the caste) work as cliques or ‘factions’ (conflict-groups) than as ‘caste groups’ for their selfish motives. When that motive/purpose is achieved, the alliance may continue for another purpose or may break down. They may form / join other alliances for the same. It is observed that generally families have constituted different ‘cliques’.

Thus, we can say that faction is an association of a few ‘core families’ to face the growing challenges from other families or factions, and to get support from them in case of police, court or in any other disturbing issues. The basis of forming these alliances depends on wealth, manpower and capacity to bring influence from outside the village.

2. Marginalized are those groups of society, who for the reasons of poverty, culture, language, religion, migrant status or other disadvantages have not been benefited from health, education, employment and other developmental opportunities. Most of them are landless labourers, rural poor with small piece of land, artisans, workers in unorganized sectors, women, SCs and STs etc.

Various steps for ensuring social justice, rural upliftment and protecting the rights of marginalize people have been taken by government. Laws concerning land reforms, land ceiling, consolidation, land alienation laws as well as social security laws and schemes have been framed. Mention may be made of –

· Payment of Wages Act – 1936 and 1971

· Minimum Wages Act – 1948

· Equal Remuneration Act – 1978

· Civil Rights Protection – 1955

· SCs and STs (Atrocities Prohibition) Act 1989.

· Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojagar Yojna (SGSY)

· Sampoorna Gram Rojagar Yojna (SGRY)

Check your progress III

1. (a) International Monetary Fund

(b) World Bank and

(c) World Trade Organization

2. (i) Market forces (ii) dominating power structure (iii) vulnerable sections (iv) a. Small and Marginal Farmers, b. Utilize the new technology.

V. (a) Rural Agricultural (b) Cities in search of jobs. (vi) a. Technology b. marginalization

(vii) a. Ecological balance b. environmental crisis

Check your progress IV

1. Unionization is the process of organizing the unorganized people for their specific goal and interest. For this purpose some strategies are used as ‘Unionization Strategies’ to unionize them and those who are unionize, to keep them intact with their association.

(i) Information collection and Community meeting

(ii) Conscientisation

(iii) Formulation of plan(s) and programme(s)

(iv)Capacity building

(v) Collaboration and co-ordination

(vi) Networking

2. (i) Submission of petition-verbal / written

(ii) Persuation

(iii) Bargaining

(iv) Negotiation

(v) Lobbying and Advocacy

(vi) Conflictual / confrontational strategies.

3 (1) Protest

· It is basically an expression of feelings and sentiments in verbal or writing and / or legal means.

· The main purpose is to oppose or to dis-approve the action initiated by the government or by existing social system.

· The main reason of protest has been noticed as victimization of people in general or some section of population.

· Victims actively participate in the protest as ‘potential protesters.’

· Community as a whole is not mobilized around social cause(s).

3. (ii) Demonstration:

· demonstration makes the message easier to understand and accept.

· it facilitates clarifications and discussions among people.

· it generates sympathetic and favourable environment.

· it should be based on problems/situation(s) which is / are important and true to real life of the audience.

· is in which locally available cheap and best materials are effectively and impressively used to reduce the unnecessary expenses and generates people’s appreciation.



ROLE OF COMMUNITY ORGANISER IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS

Contents

1.0 Aims and Objectives

.1 Introduction

.2 Settings of Community Organization

.3 Steps of Community Organization

.4 Characteristics of A Community Organizer

.5 Roles of Community Organizer

.6 Let us Sum Up

.7 Key Words

.8 Model Answers

.9 Further Readings

1.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lesson is to make you understand the various roles of a community organizer. This will highlight the diverse roles which could be applied in different settings.

After studying this unit you will be able to:

Describe the characteristics of a community organizer

Explain the different roles of a community organizer

Apply the different roles of a community organizer in different settings and

Describe the steps in executing the different roles of a community organizer.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Community organization can be practiced in different communities or settings. The community can be classified as rural, urban and tribal on the basis of geographical location. The other classification of the community can be based on the caste, religion, occupation etc. These communities are under different settings where community organization can be put into practice.

Community organization is applied when the community takes initiative in solving the problems and meetings the needs. In such a situation the community plays different roles in dealing with the various needs and problems. Usually within the community either the interested people or the people who are affected by an issue take up the lead in addressing the problem. In other words they form the community and undertake different roles in solving the problems and needs get fulfilled. But such a process does not take place so easily and hence someone has to take the lead.

When the initiative is not forthcoming on the part of the community an external agent or an outsider or a community organizer steps in and works with the community. The community organizer depending on the setting, situation and the problems applies appropriate roles. The roles are likely to vary according to the settings, problems and needs.

Community organization can be used by the community organizer in different areas or settings like, rural, urban, tribal, institutional, non institutional settings. What ever may be the settings depending up on the model of community organization like locality development, social planning and social action the community organizer has to apply different roles respectively. Therefore a community organizer has to be familiar with all the roles of community organization.

1.2 SETTINGS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

There are different areas where community organization has scope. The community organizer can practice community organization in such settings. The settings can be identified based on certain characteristics like location and the nature of administration.

Geographical Location Rural, Urban, Tribal

Sector Institutional, Non – institutional

Or

Organized, un – organized

Model Locality development

Social planning

Social action

The target group with whom the community organizer is going to work with has to be identified and understood. The needs and problems of the community in different settings need not be the same and moreover the characteristics of the people in different settings are likely to vary and hence accordingly the methods and techniques of community organization and the roles of community organizer have to be used.

The organizer can use different methods to identify, assess the need, analyse and understand the situation. There are two levels of understanding the first level understanding of the community by the organizer and the second level is making the community to understand their own situation. Different methods and techniques can be used to understand and make the community to understand. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Appreciative Inquiry can be more useful in this regard. Since these are not the scope of this unit it is not discussed here.

What ever may be the settings there is a community or a group of people with needs and problems. In other words there is discontentment which has to be focused and chanalised in such a way that the people come together, think together, plan together, implement and evaluate their actions. In all the stages the community is fully involved and their capacity is increased in terms of access and control over resources and decision making. Therefore in community organization the community organizer has to play different roles in making the people to be on their own without any dependency syndrome.

Though the types of settings have limited classification it can be said that where ever there are people or the like minded people or the affected people come together and can form a community in acquiring their due share from the society.

In different settings depending on the needs and problems and the situation of the community the roles and strategies have to be changed. Moreover all the roles need not be applied in all the settings. In order to adopt different roles the community organizer has to be very clear about the process or the steps involved in the practice of community organization methods and skills and accordingly the roles can be selected and applied.

Rural area is differentiated with urban based on the population size, density of population and occupation of the people. In any area the population is more than 5000, the density is more than 300 per square kilometer and more than 75 per cent of the people are engaged in agricultural activities such areas are called rural area. Along with these characteristics if the geographical location in general is in the hills it is called the tribal area. In the case of urban the population is more than 5000, density is more than 300 per square kilometer and more than 75 per cent are involved in non agricultural activities.

Among the people inter personal relationship and receptiveness is high and positive in rural and tribal areas where as in urban area the primary relationship within the community is rather low. Organizing rural and tribal people is less difficult compared to urban people.

In the institutional and non institutional settings the people are organized and not organized respectively. In an institution due to the organizational structure there is possibility to bring the people together for any common purposed whereas in the case of non institutional there is not a structured pattern and hence it may be difficult to bring them together.

The three models of community organization expect different sets of roles. In locality development model the people come together to discuss and decide about the improvement of an area, or locality, emphasizing the broader participation at the local level in goal determination and action.

In the social planning model the people come together and gather pertinent facts about the problems, then decide on a rational and feasible course of action. It is a technical process of solving social problems. Arranging and delivering goods and services to people whom need them. External help is more. Interested group members participate. Broader participation is less.

Social action model brings the people to destroy the oppressors. Basic changes in major situations are brought about by organizing the segment of the population so that they make demands on the larger community for increased resources or treatment more in accordance with social justice and democracy and redistribution of power, resources and decision-making.

The community organizer has to see, observe and understand all the settings and the models before responding or making the people to respond to the situation.

1.3 STEPS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

Community organization has a series of steps. By following these steps one would be able to apply the different principles, methods and models of community organization. The steps of community organization are discussed in the following pages.

People / Community

1. Are they in a difficult situation?




Yes No get out and go to other Locality

2. Did they express it?




Yes No make the people to realize it

3. Did they analyse the problem for its magnitude, symptoms and causes?




Yes No enable them to analyse it

4. What is their level of consciousness – magic, naïve and critical?




Critical level Magic or Naïve Level increase the level of consciousness

The above first four stages or steps are the basic steps to make the community to attain the required capacity to identify, analyse and under stand the needs and problems of the community. This could be otherwise called as assessment of needs and problems of the community. Community organizer has to know about the needs and problems at the same time he has to enable the people to make an assessment of the needs and problems. In order to do this process the community has to come forward to realize and express for further action or response individually or collectively. In this process the people get empowered by way of acquiring the skills of analysis and raising the levels of consciousness.

  1. List the problems – all the identified needs and problems of the community are listed by the community with the help of the community organizer. This is a process which makes the people to understand their own situation. Realization of the needs and problems will bring awareness about their own situation. The involvement of the community in identifying the various needs and problems will increase the participation of the people. The problems in different settings are likely to differ and hence accordingly the identified problems are listed.

  1. Give priorities – all the needs and problems cannot be considered together for further action. Therefore all the needs and problems are analysed for its severity, magnitude, symptoms and causes based on which they are ordered and priority is given to all the needs and problems. The community after having identified the needs and problems analysis them and give priority by which they have to be taken up for further actions.

  1. Select a problem – from the priority list most urgent problem which needs to be taken up immediately is selected. All the problems cannot be approached simultaneously there fore there is need for selecting any one problem and initiate further action. Based on the order of priority the first in the list is taken up for working out solutions.

  1. Redefine the problem – the selected problem is redefined for better understanding by the community. For better planning the problem has to be analysed and defined before taking any further step in addressing the problem. Many times one may look at a phenomenon as a problem by its appearance or at the peripheral level instead it has to be further analysed is it a real problem. Does it affect the normal functioning of the community? How many people are being affected? How are they affected? If nothing is does towards this how it will disturb the community? These are all some of the questions by which we can easily analyse and understand to redefine the problem.

  1. Formulate achievable objective – the redefined problem is converted into achievable objectives which will be considered for further action. At times the objectives have to be split into many parts so that they could be converted in to programmes and activities towards fulfilling the needs and problem. Let us assume that illiteracy is a problem in a community. It is further analysed that majority of the people of the locality have not gone to school at their childhood days. One of the reasons for that was that there was no school in their locality. At present a school has been constructed and teachers are appointed. Now non availability of the school is not the reason for illiteracy. It is further analysed and found that the children are not sent to the school. Though there were many children at the school going age the parents do not send them to the school because the teachers are not regular on one hand and on the other when the teachers are present they do not teach the children. In this situation the general problem externally appears to be illiteracy but its root cause is the defective function of the school.

  1. Work out the alternatives – based on the objectives the different ways and means are found out by the community through brain storming. One should not be content with a problem with one solution because it will limit the practice of community organization. In order to solve the selected problem the community has to generate maximum number of alternatives to address the problem. Let us take the problem of illiteracy as stated in the previous stage. How do we solve the problem? The problem is directly related to the defective functioning of the school. What are the different ways to solve this? The concerned teachers can be met and advised. The defective functioning can be brought to the notice of the higher authorities. The higher authorities can be met by the representatives with a written representation. Motivate more children to join the school. With draw all the children from the school. Close the school. Organize a protest march. Organize a hunger strike. There could be many such alternatives could be generated in tacking any problem.

  1. Select an appropriate alternative – among the proposed alternatives one of the best alternatives is selected for tackling the selected problem. To solve a problem there could be many ways but there may be one best and suitable way or method by which the problem could be easily solved. Such options should be selected. While selecting an alternative one has to start with softer approach and in a sequence. If the lower level approach fails apply the next one and even that one fails then select the next one and nothing works out finally we may resort to social action methods and may be at times we may have to resort to strong measures.

  1. Work out a plan of action – in order to materialize the selected alternative an action plan is proposed in which the responsibilities are assigned and tentative organization is structured. The time frame, resources needed and personnel involved are decided at this stage. Supposing to solve the illiteracy problem of a community it is decided to meet the authorities to present a petition. This has to be discussed at length to decide about the date, time, who, how many, where etc. At the time of meeting the authorities who is to speak? What to speak? How to speak? All these things have to be decided and role played so that it is done in a perfect manner and brings the desired results.

  1. Mobilization of resources – to implement the plan of action the required resources is assessed, identified and mobilized. The resources may be in terms of time, money, man power and material. An estimate is made and the sources are identified for mobilizing the resources. Many times man power resources alone may help to arrive at a solution. Therefore the community has to have a thorough understanding by which people by themselves may come forward to include themselves for further action. Apart from this any other resources have to be mobilized internally and if it is not possible then we have to think about it from external sources.

  1. Implement the plan of action – after having made a plan of action along with the resources the plan is implemented. The implementation takes care of the time and resources towards fulfilling the fixed goals. While implementing the plan of action the involvement of the people and their active participation by accepting the responsibilities has to be ensured. The people have to be prepared and guided to become a partner in the problem solving approach.

  1. Evaluate the action – the implemented plan is evaluated to find out the success and deviancy of the action from the objectives. Any deviancy or any undesired results are identified and the reasons for the deviancy are discussed. The positive and desired results are to be appreciated. The evaluation can be made as one of the components of working with the community. It could be organized either at periodical level or at the end of the activity either within the organization by the organization personnel or by an outsider or by an expert. The task is not complete unless the evaluation is completed.

  1. Modification – based on the evaluation the modification needed is decided and introduced. In order to bring a permanent solution to the selected problem it is being addressed with the modifications. These modifications are proposed in order to settle the problem permanently.

  1. Continuation – the modified action plan is implemented and continued.

  1. Select the next problem – once the selected need is fulfilled the next problem is selected from the priority list.

Check Your Progress III

1. Describe the steps involved in community organization.

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1.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMMUNITY ORGANIZER

1.4.1 Characteristics of a Good Organizer

  1. Curiosity – the function of an organizer is to raise questions that agitate, that break through the accepted pattern. He goes forth with the questions and suspects that there are no answers but only further questions.
  2. Irreverence – Curiosity and irreverence go together. He is challenging, insulting, agitating, discrediting. He stirs unrest. In other words creating the discontentment among the people by high lighting the situation or making the people to understand the situation.
  3. Imagination – To the organizer, imagination is not only a mental creation but something deeper. It ignites and feeds the force that drives him to organize for change. To realistically appraise and anticipate the probable reactions of the resisting forces, he must be able to identify with them too, in his imagination and foresee their reactions to his action.
  4. A Sense of Humour – Humour is essential to successful tactician, for the most potent weapons known to mankind are satire and ridicule. It enables him to maintain his perspective and see himself for what he really is.
  5. An organized personality – He should be able to accept and work with irrationalities for the purpose of change. He should recognize that each person or community has a hierarchy of values. He must become sensitive to every thing that is happening around him. He is always learning and every incident teaches him something. He must also accept without fear or worry that the odds are always against him and be prepared for that.
  6. Free and Open Mind – He must have a flexible personality, not a rigid structure that breaks down when something unexpected happens. The organizer while working with the community does not have any hidden agenda or pre conceived ideas.
  7. Discerning and Critical Eye – the organizer should be able to look at the situation and differentiate it critically. Any situation has to be viewed through the eyes of the people carefully and find out its magnitude, symptoms and causes.
  8. Receptive Ear – the organizer has to be a good and an attentive listener, listening to the people and to their problem. The organizer while working with the community has to be person having patient listening and does not be person commanding over the people.

The difference between a leader and an organizer is – the leader goes on to build power to fulfill his desires to hold and wield the power for purposes both social and personal. He wants power to himself. The organizer finds his goal in creation of power for others to use.

1.4.2 Skills of an Effective Community Organizer

Problem Analysis – One of the major tasks of the community organizer is to assist the people in arriving at a solution to the problem. The organizer is capable of identifying the problem and making the people to identify, analyse, give priorities, select an appropriate priority, mobilize resources, make a plan of action, implement, monitor, evaluate, modify and continue.

Resource Mobilization – Any problem of the community while working out the solution requires resources. The resources may be in terms man power, money material and time. On one hand the organizer is aware of the availability of the resources within the community or outside the community and on the other makes the people to identify the sources of resources and the way to tap such resources.

Conflict Resolution – Problems of the community involves the affected people by the problem and the others who are the causes for the problem. Therefore there could be a conflict between these two groups or between the people and the system. The organizer is equipped with the skill of identifying the conflicting situation and making the people to understand the conflict the work out the ways and means to find solutions to the conflict.

Organizing Meeting – Communication within the community and between the community and the organizer is inevitable. There needs to be transparency in the dealings for which formal and informal meetings have to be organized and information have to be shared. The sharing of information enables sharing of responsibility and decision making.

Writing Reports – documentation of the events for future reference and follow up is absolutely essential. Any communication or any written representation and the report of the dealings have to be recorded. This task is either done by the community organizer or delegate the task to some one else for this purpose.

Networking – in a community while working with the people the participation of the people strengthens or increases the power of the people. At times support from like minded people or organization has to elicit so that a pressure is built against the oppressive force and to create pressure and increase the bargaining power for which networking with other people and organization is done by the community organizer.

Training – capacity building of the people and the personnel of an organization is important while working with the community. In the process of capacity building the community organizer has to be a good trainer. The community organizer has to use his training ability and skills in this regard.

Check Your Progress II

1. Describe skills of a Community Organizer

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1.5 ROLES COMMUNIYT ORGANIZER

Community organizer having the required characteristics and skills and the knowledge about the process and steps of community organization will be able to apply the same in different settings by appropriate roles. The different roles of a community organizer are discussed here. These roles are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive.

1. Communicator – the community organizer transfers or transmits information, thought, knowledge etc. to the members of the community. Sharing of information enables the community to be better prepared and empowered with information. The communication between the organizer and the community and within the community is essential. The people have to be prepared and known about the various effects of consequences of the community organization process. The communication takes place by individual contact, group meetings, group discussions, public meetings etc.

At times the community organizer takes an upper hand and considers that the people are illiterate and ignorant and hence the dealings with the people become a master slave relationship. In order to avoid any such undesired relationship the community organizer has transparency and communicates with the people. The communication enables better interaction which leads to a healthy relationship and cooperation for further action and response.

The community organizer in order to disseminate the information to the people can use different techniques like skit, role plays, street plays and audio and vides shows. The organizer can train the people in all these communicative techniques. This will be more effective if he is able to organize the small children and train them in this regard. The children are an effective communicative channel and a fast reaching channel.

The local groups like women’s group, youth groups are other channels for communication. By giving the responsibility to such groups to communicate to all other members in the community will also be helpful in reaching out the whole community. There should not be any secrecy or suppression of information which would only create undesired results.

2. Enabler – the community organizer facilitates the process in the community for a change. He does not carry out any work by himself but he enables the community to do the work. The organizer gives importance to the process than the product. Therefore the people learn the process rather than worried about the results and consequences of the process. By the role of enabler the organizer would create independency among the people by which avoid the dependency syndrome.

The community organizer is present with the people and encourages and gives different directions so that the people are able to decide what they would like to do and how they would like to do. The community organizer only initiates the process and people have to follow and at the time of difficulties they refer back to the community organizer. There fore the role of the community organizer is to make the people to understand the process and to stand on their own.

3. Animator – in any process of community organization the organizer encourages, provides direction and guide lines to proceed in carrying out the different activities. The people because of their culture always depend on others and do not want to decide anything on their own. In such situation the organizer as an animator makes the people to come forward and take active participation. Any further corrections or modifications in the works of the community are being done by the animator. The animator plays a vital role in eliciting the active participation of the people from planning till evaluation especially ensuring life in all the dealings of the issues and problems.

The people in general do not want to take any risk and at tines they do not even want to do anything for common good. One of the reasons could be that the people have the attitude of culture of poverty or culture of silence. This could be changed by the community organizer by pricking or tickling the conscience of the people through raising questions. This would further enable them increase their level of consciousness.

4. Guide – the community organizer instead of doing anything on his own guides the members of the community in the process of community organization. The community organizer is not a person to shoulder the responsibility or solving problems of the people. Instead he has to make the people to respond for which the organizer provides the various avenues and shows different roots while dealing with the community problems. As a guide the organizer provides the needed information. He has to be a person with lots of information and ideas. For example in a community there are many educated unemployed youth and their presence in the community is considered to be more of nuisance than as a human resource. In such a situation the community organizer should be able to provide information about the various employment opportunities, and different ways to become self employed, the terms and conditions for availing credit from the credit institutions etc. have to be told to the youth. Once the community organizer is able to provide information which is useful to the people the youth from the neighbouring youth may also approach in getting some guidance from the community organizer. This would surely fetch credit to the community organizer as well as gains the good will of the people.

5. Counselor – the community organizer understands the community and enables the community to understand itself. At the time of difficulty the individuals or the groups are given the required counseling to proceed in the correct direction. One of the very basic dimensions of counseling is to be a patient listener. Usually every one likes others to listen to them and hesitate to listen to others. Moreover as a counselor he has to step into the shoes of others, understand and respond. People when they are in need there should be some one to listen to them. When people approach there should be some one to attend to. In all such situations the community organizer can easily step in as a counselor in helping the people.

6. Collaborator – the community organizer joins hands in performing his task with his colleagues with other like minded people and organizations. The organizer has to have interpersonal relationship and public relation skills. Nowadays organizations approach a problem not with their personal capacity they also depend on the neighbouring organization. Similarly other organizations may also look for the cooperation and collaboration of different organization. There are also organization working towards a similar problem where in a collaborative effort will strengthen both the organization. Therefore the role of collaborator is very much needed for net working of similar and like minded organizations and efforts for a common cause.

7. Consultant – the community organizer enjoys the confidence of the people and advises them in matters of vital interest. The community organizer becomes a person with lots of knowledge and information which is being shared with the people. As a consultant the community organizer makes himself available to the people who are in need because the community organizer has lots of information and expertise which could be availed by those who are in need of it. The community organizer instead of working in the filed in one area will be able to contribute his expertise with many individuals and groups by performing the role of a consultant.

8. Innovator – the community organizer innovates, performs, and improves the techniques, content in the process of community organization. This gives a lead to the people of the community and enables them to try out new ways and means to find solutions to the needs and problems. The community organization should not be merely for solving problem alone. On the other hand it has to be in the areas of capacity building of the individuals and community where the organizer can be an innovator by introducing new things to improve the capacity of the people. Community organizer is not a person to maintain the system that exists but he should be a person to introduced new ways and means to climb up the development ladder.

9. Model – the community organizer commands perfection as a community organizer and serves as a source of inspiration. The role of the organizer is to become an example while working with the people. This should further become as a model which could be applied in other areas with similar problems. By proper planning in approaching a problem and execution of the plan and documenting the whole process will be of greater help to others. The problem solving process becomes a model to others.

10. Motivator – the community organizer stimulates and sustains active interest among the people for reaching a solution to the needs and problems. The community organizer encourages the community to take up a minor task and complete it successfully which would enable the people to take up difficult task. In such a process the people at times may not take up any initiative or content to live with the existing situation. Therefore the organizer motivates the people by making them to observe, analyse, understand and respond to the situation. When people are discouraged because they were not able to achieve what they wanted or there is resistance and opposition in such situations the organizer plays the role of a motivator.

11. Catalyst – in the process of community organization the community organizer retains his identity at the same time enables the people to be empowered. The people gain accessibility and control over resources and acquire skills in decision making. The community organizer accelerates the actions and reactions so that people are able to achieve the desired results. As a catalyst the organizer is able to increase the response level of the people. The catalyst role further enables the people to become independent and become expert in responding to their own needs.

12. Advocate – the role of the advocate is to be a representative or persuade the members of the community and prepare them to be a representative as well as represent the issues to the concerned body to bring a solution to the unmet needs. The advocacy role is an important role to the present context. The needs and problems of the people have to be represented and the required support and networking is essential to increase the pressure on the oppressive forces. In the role of advocate the community organizer champions the rights of others. The community organizer speaks on behalf of the community when community is unable to do so, or when community speaks and no one listens. The advocate represents the interests of the community to gain access or services or improve the quality of services which may be hampered by other forces. An advocate argues, debates, bargains, negotiates, and confronts the environment on behalf of the community.

13. Facilitator – the community organizer helps the community to articulate their needs, clarify and identify their problems, explore resolution strategies, select and apply intervention strategies, and develop their capacities to deal with their own problems more effectively. A facilitator provides support, encouragement, and suggestions to the community so that they may proceed more easily and successfully in completing tasks or problem solving. A facilitator assists the community to find coping strategies, strengths and resources to produce changes necessary for accomplishing goals and objectives. A facilitator helps client systems alter their environment.

14. Mediator – the community organizer intervenes in disputes between parties to help them find compromises, reconcile differences, or reach mutually satisfying agreements. The mediator takes a neutral stance between the involved parties. A mediator is involved in resolving disputes between members of the between the community and other persons or the broader environment.

15. Educator – the community organizer as educator conveys information to the community and the broader environment. Organizer provides information necessary for coping with problem situations, assists the community in practicing new behaviors or skills, and teaches through modeling. The community organizer provides information necessary for decision making.

Community organization is a macro method in social work. The community organizer with the required qualities and skills will be able to work with the people. While working with the people of different background or from different geographical set up the different roles can be applied. All the roles need not be or cannot be applied in all the settings to all the problems. Moreover there is no one role which is superior or inferior and while dealing with any problem the organizer has to use more than one role. Therefore depending upon the situation and the needs and problems of the community appropriate role has to be applied.

Check Your Progress IV

  1. Describe the different roles of a Community Organizer

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1.6 LET US SUM UP

This unit has described the settings in which community organization can be applied, skills and characteristics of a community organizer. The community organization process involves the role of the community where the community takes the initiative in identifying, analyzing, selecting the different needs and problems of the community. The community also identifies the needed resources and works out the plan of action, implements, evaluates and continues with the next priority of needs. In the process of community organization the organizer plays different roles like communicator, counseller, consultant, motivator, innovator, guide, advocate etc. in different settings depending on the situation and needs and problems.

1.7 KEY WORDS

Levels of Consciousness – it is the understanding of the people about the socio economic status of the people. There are three levels of consciousness namely magic, naïve and critical level.

Magic level of Consciousness – it is the basic belief in fatalism and justify the status of the person as due to the fate or God’s creation.

Naïve level of Consciousness – people believe that it is due to lack of facilities because of which they are being exploited.

Critical level of Consciousness – the people understand that due to dependency, inequality and exploitation their status remain as poor.

Empowerment – it is the access and control over self, ideology, resources and decision making.

1.8 MODEL ANSWERS

Check Your Progress I

Describe skills of a Community Organizer

To work with the community the organizer has to be equipped with lots of skills to deal with the problem on one hand to work with the members of the community. The skill revolves around bridging the gap between the needs and resources. There fore the community organizer has to equip with the skills of problem solving, resource mobilizing, planning and implementation and evaluation. At the each level the orgazniser has to elicit the participation and cooperation of the people.

Check Your Progress II

1. Describe the steps involved in community organization.

Community organization basically involves in preparing the people to identify their own problem, analyse the problem for its magnitude, symptoms and causes. From the problems identified one of the problems is selected based on its severity and urgency. The different ways and means are generated and most appropriate alternative is selected. The needed resources are identified and mobilized. An action is planned to achieve the objectives. This plan is implemented, monitored and evaluated. Based on the evaluation modifications are made if necessary for further action and continued. If the desired plan has been completed the next problem from the priority list is selected for action.

Check Your Progress III

1. Describe the different roles of a Community Organizer

The community organizer has many roles and functions depending upon situation, community and the needs and problems. The roles are as communicator conveys the information, as an enabler, motivator increases the capacity of the community to work towards achieving the goals. The community organizer also acts as a catalyst, consultant and counselor where in he is a source of information and encourages the people to respond to the situation. The community organizer as an innovator suggests new ways and different ways towards the well being of the community. Advocacy is another role where either the organizer represents the community or encourages the community to represent the community whenever needed. The organizer acts neither as a guide nor as a person to dictate or command or demand the members of the community. The organizer has to be a friend, philosopher and guide so that the community is guided and provided with the needed information and enables them to unite their strength and understand their own problem and work out the alternatives in finding solution to the needs and problems.

1.9 FURTHER READINGS

Cox, F.M., et.al. 1987 (Fourth Editions)

Strategies of Community Organization.

Illinois : Peacock Publishers.

Gangrade, K.D. 1971.

Community Organization in India.

Bombay : Prakashan.

Kramer, Ralph M & Harry Specht. 1975.

Readings in Community Organization Practice.

New Jersey : Printice Hall Inc.

Ross, M.G. 1955.

Community Organization.

New York : Harper and Row Publishers.

BSWE - 03

BLOCK 1 : COMMUNITY ORGANISATION

UNIT - 1

COMMUNITY ORGANISATION

CONCEPT AND PRINCIPLES

Contents

1.0 Objective

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definition of community organisation

1.3 Principles of community organisation

1.4 Values and ethics of community organisation practice

1.5 Location of community work within social work

1.6 Concept of community analysis structure and function.

1.7 Let us sum up

1.8 Key words

1.9 Model Answers

1.10 Further Readings

1.0 OBJECTIVE

This unit will present to you a general introduction about Community organisation. After completing this unit, you will be able to understand-

(i) The nature of community organisation,

(ii) Definition of community organisation,

(iii) Principles of community organisation,

(iv) Values and ethics of community practice,

(v) Location of community work within social work,

(vi) Concept of community analysis structure and function.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Social work profession has three main methods i.e. (i) Cash work, (ii) Group work and (iii) Community organisation to achieve its goal. Community organisation covers largest mumber of clients at a time to solve their socio economic or Psychosomatic problems. Social work methods are well adopted in practice in America and England and in some other developed countries but comparatinely they are still in their infancy in developing and underdeveloped countries. Efforts have been made to provide services through launching various community awareness and development programs in these countries but still much needs to be done. In this unit we shall make effort to define community organisation and decribe in brief other introductory characteristics of components of community organisation enabling you to understand the fundamental aspects and contents related with this method of social work. We will include in this unit, apart from various definitions of community organisation, principles of community organisation, values and ethics of community organisation practice, location of community work within social work and concept of community analysis : structure and function.

1.2 DEFINITION OF COMMUNITY ORGANISATION

There are various definitions of community organisation given by different distinguished authors, practitioners and organisations. All definitions core contents are more or less similar except slight difference emphasis on one or other content. Here we will go through some of t he popular and well accepted definitions of community organisation.

EDUARD C. LINDEMAN in 19211 defined community organisation as “Community organisation is that phase of social organisation which constitutes a conscious effort on the part of a community to control its affairs democratically and to secure the highest services from its specialists, organisations, agencies and institutions by means of recognised inter relations.”

WALTER W. PETTIT in 19252 defined it as “Community organisatin is perhaps best defined as assisting a group of people to recognise their common needs and helping them to meet these needs.”

RUSSELL H. KURTZ in 1940 defined it as “Community organisation is a process dealing primarily with program relationships and thus to be distinguished in its social work setting from those other basic processes, casework and groupwork, which deal with people. Those relationships of agency to agency, of agency to community and of community to agency reach in all directions from any focal point in the social work picture. Community organisation may be thought of as the process by which these relationships are initiated, altered or terminated to meet changing conditions, and it is thus basic to all social work...”.

WAYNE MCMILLEN in 19473 defined it as “Community organisation in its generic sense in deliberately directed effort to assist groups in attaining unity of purpose and action. It is practiced, though often without recognition of its character, wherever the objective is to achieve or maintain a pooling of the talents and resources of two or more groups in behalf of either general or specific objectives.”

C.F. MCNEIL in 19544 defined it as “Community organisation for social welfare is the process by which the people of community, as individual citizens or as representatives of groups, join together to determine social welfare needs, paln ways

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1. The community, New York, Association Press 1921, pp. 139, 173.

2. “Some prognostications in the field of Community work”. Proceedings, National conference of social work, Denver, 1925, Chicago : University of Chicago Press 1925, p. 682.

3. “Community organisation in Social work, S.W.Y.B. 1947, N.Y.R.S. Foundation, 1947, p. 110.

4. Community organisation for social welfare, S.W.Y.B. 1954, Y.N. A.A.S.W. 1954, p. 21.

of meeting then and mobilise the necessary resource. The focus of effort may be a functional field of social welfare, for example leisure time and recreation, or geographical area such as a neighbourhood, city or county.”

MURRAY G. ROSS in 19551 defined community organisation as “A process by which community identifies its needs or objectives, orders (or ranks) these needs or objectives, develops the confidence and will to work at these needs or objectives, finds the resources (internal and/or external) to deal with these needs or objectives takes action in respect to them and in so doing extends and develops co-operative and collabarative attitudes and practices in the community.”

UNITED NATIONS in 19552 considered community organisation as complementary to community development. United Nations assumed that community development is operataive in underdeveloped communities and community organisation is operative in areas in where levels of living are relatively high and social services relatively well developed, but in where a greater degree of integration and community initiative is recognised as desirable.”

Exploiting core contents of above giving popular definitions we may define community organisation as “A method of social work which helps the community to understand its needs and objectives, develop willingness and confidence to achieve them, exploring and utilising available and probable internal and external resources in organised and cooperative manner though valuntary or public agency.”

Above definitions reveal salient features and nature of community organisation. Summerising them we may say that Community organisation helps people collectively living either in a particular geographical area or common in characteristics based on eithers pyschosomatic (i.e. age, sex or ability level etc.) or socio economic (i.e. racial differences, income, profession etc.) grounds beyond any geographical limit to solve their problems related with food, health, shelter, education, economy or development, communication, social security and legislation etc.

Community organisation is a problem solving and developmental process of social work and it is significantly more economic in terms of time and money than anyother process of social work i.e. case work or group work.

Community organisation method involves various different professionals for a common cause.

Planning, peoples’ participation, mass awareness, education, wilingness, democracy and regular monitoring and evaluation are essential components of community organisation method.

Check your progress I

(i) Give two definition of community organisation.

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1. Community organisation : Theory and principles, N.Y. : Harper & Brothers 1955. p. 39.

2. Principals of community development, social progress through community development 1955, N.Y. Harper E.B. and Dunham, p. 525.

(ii) What are the essential components of community organisation ?

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1.3 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY ORGANISATION

Before using any method to solve people’s problem we must know the basic principles of that method in order to make the best use of it. Let us come across principles of community organisation.

Principles of Community organisation may be listed as-

(i) Community organisation is the means not the aim,

(ii) Communities differ like individuals and groups,

(iii) Communities have the right of self determination like individuals and groups,

(iv) Community need is the basis of organisation and community is the primary client in community organisation.

(v) Community welfare is more important than agency’s own interest in programme formulation,

(vi) Community organisation or agency’s structure should be simple as for as possible and services should be a equally distributed among different sub groups of the community,

(vii) There should be larger representation of community in inter-agency network.

(viii) There should be balance between centralisation and decentralisation of right and duties of participants and functionaries and communication gaps should be avoided.

(ix) Community welfare programme should be need based and as far as possible all groups to have impact of programmes should participate in the formulation, implementation and direction of programmes.

(x) Valuntary cooperation is the key of effective community organisation. Agency must ensure representation, cooperation and coordination with neighbour agencies.

(xi) Agency should appoint properly qualified and trained professional personnel to run activities and implement programmes effectively.

(xii) Each agency should develop fundamental policies according to their own nature and should develop criterion for selection and regular monitoring and evaluation of programmes and activities.

(xiii) Responsibility to carry on monitoring and evaluation should also be given to other agencies ready to take up and involve in such task.

(xiv) Community organisation process accepts continuous changes in needs of individuals or groups and their dynamics.

(xv) Aims and objectives of welfare for restructuring in accordance with required adjustment with the changing needs.

(xvi) Formal and informal leaders accepted by and adjusted in subgroups of the community should be properly well accomodated in the organisation. Aims and functioning manner of the agency should be well accepted to the community and

(xvii) Actions of emotional references should be given due importance and place in the programme of the organisation and latent and manifested healthy feelings of the community should be well utilised.

(xviii) Positive and effective communication should be developed within the organisation and between community and agency should assist and strenthen groups cooperating with them.

(xix) Organisational functionality should always be flexible in decision making and should enhance from time to time it’s velocity of functioning in accordance with circumstances of the community.

(xx) Agency should make effort to develop effective leadership, and develop strength, stability harmony and honour within the community.

Check your progress II

(i) List any three principles focusing community role.

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(ii) List any three principles of community organisation focusing agency role.

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1.4 VALUES AND ETHICS OF COMMUNITY

ORGANISATION PRACTICE

Now we would try to understand values and ethics of community organisation practice. Here we have to keep two things in mind. The first one is that the values and ethics of social work profession in general, and values and ethics of community organisation practice are, more or less, the same community organisation method is operative only within the broader frame work of social. The other thing is that the principles and values are very often so much interningled that it becomes very difficultl to seperate them values provide base for developing principles. Values direct our thinking and action towards socially accepted patterns.

Different social work thinkers and practioners have described social work values with different names and have put them under different categories. In this regard quite often Kohs, Herbet Bisno, Konopka, Friedlander, Goldsmith, Hoselitz, Hock, Frank, Green, Hobbes, Inkeles, Royce and Deutsch are being quoted. Here we will take up few significant values commonly applicable to community organisation practice

(i) First of all we may take up the worth, dignity, integrily, selfrespect, qual opportunity and potentiality of members of the community. In community work these should be given due place and honour.

(ii) Next to this we may take up liberty and tolerance. Community should be given full liberty in decision making and in that process coming differences should be tolerated.

(iii) Constructive cooperation and coordination are essential for community work and these should be observed not only among individuals of the community but between all members, all agencies and other influencing bodies and persons related with the community.

(iv) Due place should be given to human stresses, motivations and learning in community work.

(v) Approach to community work should be democratic, welfare oriented and need based,

(vi) Community organisation believes in individuals and social change and evolution alongwith their rigidity towards cultural demands,

(vii) Each person, group or community is some what dependant on other and interdependence is essential for life and progress.

(viii) Individual is an indireate component of the society and it’s needs are specific and common both. Individual and society both have certain responsibility for each other. A community workers has to keep in mind these facts and provide adedquate oppotunities for their progress and development.

(ix) Community organisation practice believes in confidetiality, social justice and modernisation.

After becoming familiar with values of community organisation practice we should also be aware of ethicss of community organisation.

(i) The community organiser should maintain high standards of persosnal conduct as a community worker. The community organiser should not participate in or be associated with dishonesty, fraud or misrepresentation. He should clearly distinguish between statements and actions made as a private individual and as a representative of community work profession.

(ii) The community worker should make effort to become and remain competant in professional practice and performance. He should accept responsibilities on the ground of existing proficiency and intention to acquire required competence. He should not misrepresent professional qualifications education and experience.

(iii) Community worker should regard the service obligation of the profession. He should retain responsibility for the quality of the service that one assumes, assigns or performs. He should act to prevent inhumane and dishonest practices against any individual, group or community.

(iv) The community worker should act in accordance with the high level of professional impartiality and integrity. He should be alert and resist the pressures and influences that interfere with professional decision and judgement. He should not exploit professional relationships for personal gain.

(v) The community worker engaged in study and research should follow the updated methodss of inquiry. He should carefully consider its consequences for the community and its members and as certain that the research evaluation or inquiry is valuntary and priorly known to them. It should also be kept in mind that information should be confidential and dignified. There should not be any harassment in case of refusal to participation. Community work researcher should also protect participants from physical or mental discomforts, stresses, harm, danger or deprivation. During evaluation work, he should discuss issues only for professional purposes and with persons directly and professionaly related with them. Community work researcher should take credit only for his actual research work and new findings.

(vi) The community worker’s primary responsibility is community well being. He should serve his clientle with devotion, layality, determination and maximum feasible application of professional skill and competance. He should not exploit relationship for personal gain or use agency for private practice. Community worker’s practice should be indiscriminatory in respect of race, colour, sex, age, religion, nationality, marital, status, political belief, physical, mental capability or any other characteristic, status or condition. He should avoid relationships or committments that contrary to the interest of the community. He should not involve himself in any sexual affair with the client. He should make accurate and complete information available to the community and should apprise community of its rights, risks, opportunities and obligations associated with the services for them. In the interest of the community he should seek advice and consultation with colleagues and supervisors in the interest of the community. The community worker should terminate his services when they are no more required and it should be notified to the community in time and further action in relation to the community needs should be pointed out.

(vii) The community worker should make or efforts to maximise self determination. The community worker should safegaurd the interest and rights of the community members and he should not be engaged in any action violating or diminishing civil or legal rights of the persons related with his activities and programmes.

(viii) The community worker should take due care regarding maintenence and protection of confidentiality pertaining to the obtained informations, their recording, taping and permitting for other’s observation.

(ix) In case of setting fees for any service to the community. Community worker should ensure that they are reasonable, considerate and fair and in accordance with the ability to pay. He should not accept any thing for referral service.

(x) A community worker should treat colleagues with respect courtesy, faireness and good faith. He should cooperate with colleagues and seek arbitration when conflicts with colleagues require resolution.

(xi) The community worker has the responisbility to relate with others with ful professional consideration. The worker to seves the client of colleagues during their temporary should objence on emergency serve those client with the same consideration as that afforded to any client.

(xii) The community worker should be responsible and abide himself to the committments made to the employing organisation. He should work to improve policies procedures, efficiency and effectiveness of the services of employing agency. He should act to prevent and eliminate discrimination in the employing organisaitons work and in its employment policies and practices.

(xiii) Community worker should maintain integrity of the profession and should uphold and enhance the values, ethics, knowledge and mission of the profession. He should take action to proper channell against unethical conduct by any other member of the profession. He should also act to prevent the unauthorised and unqualified practice of community work.

(xiv) The community worker should assist the profession in making social services available to the mass in general. He should spare time and professional expertise to activities that promote respect for the utility, the integrity and the competence of profession. He should support the formulation, development, anactment an implementation of social policies related to the profession.

(xv) The community worker should take responsibility for identifying, developing and utilizing knowledge for professional practice of community work. He should critically examine the emerging knowlege relevant to community work and contribute to the knowledge base and share knowledge and practice with coworkdrs.

(xvi) The community worker should promote the general welfare of the community as well as the society. He should act to prevent and eliminate descrimination against any person or group on the basis of race or sex, religion or nationality age or marital status, political belief or personal characteristics or condition or status. He should be aware and ensure that all community members have adequate resources, services and opportunities they require. He should also act to expand opportunity for disadvanated or oppressed groups and persons.

Check your progress III

(i) Describe in brief there values of community organisation

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(ii) Describe any three ethics of community organisaitons

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1.5 LOCATION OF COMMUNITY WORK

WITHIN SOCIAL WORK

We know that social work profession has three main methods case work, group work and community work/organisation are the three main methods and social action, social research are the three ancillary methods. As we know social work profession came in practice round about world war and gradually developed to its present form. Community work/organisation term was first used in America befor the first world war and was included in social work curriculam there as a subject in 1940. Community work begun in England with organisation charity to assist needy poor through settlement houses. It came in practice in third world contries for developmental programmes in the middle of 20th century and now being used as a well established professional method of helping people. It has achieved a fully recognised and well accepted status of a method of social work in social work curriculam as well as social work practice in developed nation and under developed wherever social work is taught and practiced.

The exact location of community work within social work is neither possible nor necessary to have a consensus as it depends on the need, demand, requirement, resource, facility, willingness, feasibility, circumstances and nature of the clientele to be served helped that which medhod of social work practice will suit most in that situation to solve the referred or diagnosed problem. History of evolution of methods of social work locate community work at third place. First of all, case work came in practice and later to that community work came in practice but the energence of these three methods happended with slight timing differences and thus that may be treated as insignificant and may be ignored. In developed countries case work and after that group work methods are more popular and in wide practice but in developing and under developed countries of third world, community work is more prominent. An overall picture of social work profession and practice locates community, work organisation approximately in its middle position. It does not mean that in anyway it has less significance or importance to anyother method of social work, rather soldier and incorporate in addition, responsibility and task of other main methods of social work in manyways.

Check your progresss III

(i) Describe in few lines basis of location of community organisation in social work.

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1.6 CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY ANALYSIS :

STRUCTURE AND FUNCATION

It is a prerequisite to any profession to know the nature it’s client. In medical profession before prescribing medicine to the patient doctor has to know about the nature of the patient, his dieting preferences and willingness of intake of medicine etc. Before constructing a bridge on the river, the nature of it’s flow of water and highest level during flood should be priorly known to the engineer for preventive measures. To know the nature of the clientale we analyse that in it’s various components having different traists. Becoming aware of different traits it becomes easy to formulate remedies for the clientate. The basis of the concept of community analysis is the same. To be successful in community organisation/work it is essential to analyse the community being adopted for help.

Community organisation thinkers and practitioners have divided componentsof community in two categories i.e. (i) Horizontal and (ii) Vertical.

Horizontal components are structural and functional relationships between various social institution, systems and forces within the communities are structural and functional relationships with out side the community. Analysing various horizontal components of the community worker should to be into consideration (i) Background and Setting, (ii) History, Geography and (iii) Demography (iv) Transportation communication (v) Economic life (vi) Government, politics, Law enforcement (vii) Housing (viii) Education (ix) Recreation, (x) Religion, (xi) Health and Sanitation, (xii) Associations, Agencies and unions, (xiii) Ecology and environment and (xiv) Social institution like, caste, religion, family etc. The community should be aware the totall areas of the community, its origin evolution and development, location and cultural foundation, roads, lanes, traditional and modern means of transportation like bullock carts, tractors, various cycles, rickshaw, geeps etc. Population structure including total population and its age, sex, caste, race, ethnicity based distributions, facilities of telephone, television, postal services, cinema, theatre, cellular phones, newspapers etc, occupations like agriculture, horticulture, fishery, dairy, animal husbandry, cottage industry and per capita income etc., facilities of development block, police substation, political parties, leaders and institutions like village panchayat, nyaya panchayat, develoopment area committee, mandi samiti, school and tutorial coaching centres, vocational training centres, residential facilities, accomodations, night shelters, play grounds, clubs, playing materials, temples, worshipping places, hospitals, health centres, doctors, nurses, sanitation, drinking water, maximum, minimum and normal tempereture, rivers, wells, ponds, plantation, rainfalls, mountains, plateau, soil etc; labour unions, welfare and other agencies, living pattern and facilities social economic and political institutions, etc. Apart from these the worker should take into consideration the pattern and quality positive attitude, value and ethics related with assimilation, cooperation, initiation, leadership, interaction, response, willingness, acceptance, harmony, participation etc. and negative attitudes like communal, racial or caste feeling destruction, apathy, political rewaley, class feeling and their interrelationship etc.; individuals groups, organisations and agencies within or outside the community having influence on the community to be helped through community work.

To analyse vertical components of the community, a community organisor/worker should be aware of all those resources which influence the community and its functioning from outside the community. These resources may be either federal or state government and their agencies, laws officials etc. or International quasi governmental or voluntary agencies or organisations, their personnel, officers, laws, schemes, programmes etc. These resources may have influence or involvement in activities in a community considering that as their primary unit of operation.

Whether the component is horizontal or vertical the community organiser/worker should know it’s collective structure and function both. They should be aware of setting of each component in it’s particular special pattern with specific relation to each other. They should also be familiar with functions of each and every component whether that is assisting, cooperating, assimilating, or disturbing, disintegrating or opposing to the community work. Keeping into consideration the above analytical elements in the beginning and planning for the community work, the worker may proceed smoothly and get adequate fruitful results. Community analysis helps mobilizing resources within and outside the community, utilising them in the best suitable way and strenghering harmonious relationship between individuals, groups, sub systems, agencies, personnel and officials etc.

Check your progress V

(i) Describe in brief horizontal components of community

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(ii) Describe in brief vertical components of community

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1.7 LET US SUM UP

There are various definitions of community organisation given by different authors, exploring core contents of popular definitions, we may define community organisation as a method of social work which helps the community to understand its needs and objectives, develop willingness and confidence to achieve them, exploring and utilising available and probable internal and external resources in organised and cooperative manner through voluntary and public agency.

Some of the principles of community organisation are as listed below :

(i) Community organisation is the means not the aim,

(ii) Communities have the right of self determination,

(iii) Community organisation or agencies structure should be simple,

(iv) Community welfare programs should be need based,

(v) Valuntary cooperation is the key of effective community organisation.

(vi) Community organisation process accepts continuous changes in needs of individual or group.

(vii) Objectives of the agency should be wide and flexible.

(viii) Positive and effective communication should be developed within the organisation and between community and agency.

(ix) Agency should develop strength harmony and honour.

The main values of community organisation are dignity, self respect, equal opportunity, liberty, tolerence, democracy, constructive cooperation.

The ethics of community organisation are maintanance of high standard of personal conduct, competence in professinal practice, regard for profession, adoption of undated methods of enquiry and research, service with devotion and loyalty, maintenance and protection of confidentiality, colleagues respect, action for prevention and elimination of discrimination.

Exact location of community work within social work is neither possible nor necessary. History of evolution of methods of social work locate community work at third place. An overall picture of social work profession locates community work in its middle position. Authors have divided the nature of community in two categories i.e. (i) Horizontal and (ii) Vertical for community analysis. The horizontal nature includes structural and functional relationships of various social components and systems in the community. The vertical nature includes structured and functional relationships of its components of sources outside the community.

1.8 KEY WORDS

Community : A social group of any size whose members either resides in a specific locality, share government and have a historical and cultural heritage, or a big group of members with common needs, profession or psychosomatic make or socioeconomic structure.

Clientele : Recipient of support and help i.e. community people.

Agency : An organisation for the welfare and development of community people.

1.9 MODEL ANSWERS

Check your progress I

1. Give two definitions of community organisation.

(i) “Community organisation is a process by which community identifies its needs or objectives, orders (or ranks) these needs or objectives, develops the confidence and will to work at these needs or objectives, finds the resources (internal and/or external) to deal with these needs or objectives, takes action in respect to them and in so doing extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community.”

(ii) “Community organisation for social welfare is the process by which the people of community, as individual citizens or as representatives of groups, join together to determine social welfare needs, plan ways of meeting them and mobilise the necessary resources. The focus of effort may be a functional feld of social welfare, for example leisure time and recreation, or a geopraphical area such as a neighbourhood, city or county.”

2. What are the essential components of community organisation ?

(i) Planning, peoples participation, mass awareness, education, democracy, regular monitoring and evaluation and willingness are essential components of community organisation.

Check your progress II

1. List any three principles of community organisation focusing community role.

(i) Communities have the right of self determination.

(ii) Voluntary cooperation is the key to effective community organisation.

(iii) There should be larger representation of community in inter-agency network.

2. List any three principles of community organisation focusing agency role.

(i) Each agency should develop fundamental policies and criterion for selection and regular monitoring and evaluation of programs and activities.

(ii) Agency should make effort to develop leadership and strength, stability, harmony and honour within the community.

(iii) Aims and objectives of agency should be wide enough and program should be flexible for restructuring in accordance with required adjustment with the changing needs.

Check your progress III

1. Describe in brief three values of community organisation.

(i) In community work worth, dignity, integrity, self respect, equal opportunity and potentiality of members should be given due place and honour.

(ii) Community should be given full liberty in decision making and in that process coming up differences should be tolerated.

(iii) Constructive cooperation and coordination are essential for community work and these should be observed not only among individuals of the community but between all members, all agencies and other influencing bodies and persons related with the community.

2. Describe any three ethics of community organisation.

(i) The community organisation should maintain high standards of personal conduct as a community worker. He should not participate in or be associated with dishonesty, fraud or misrepresentation. He should clearly distinguish between statements a nd actions made as a private individual and as a representative of community work profession.

(ii) Community worker should regard the service obligation of the profession. He should retain responsibility for the quality of the service that one assumes, assign or performs. He should act to prevent inhumane and discriminatory practices against any individual, group or community.

(iii) He should serve his clilemtele with devotion, loyalty, determination and maximum feasible application of professional skill and competence. He should not exploit relationship for personal gain or use agency for private practice.

Check your progress IV

Describe in few lines basis of location of community organisation in social work.

History of evolution of methods of social work locate community work at third place as first of all case work came in practice and then after that group work came in practice and later to that community work came in practice. In developed countries case work and then after that group work methods are more popular and in wide practice but in developing and underdeveloped countries of third world community work is more prominent.

Check your progress V

1. Describe in brief horizontal components of community.

Horizontal components are structural and functional relationships between various social institutions, systems and forces within the community. These are related with background and setting, history, geography and demography, transportation and communication, economic life, government politics, law enforcement, housing, education, recreation, health and sanition, associations, agencies and unions, ecology and environment, social institutions like family, caste, race, religion etc.

2. Describe in brief vertical components of community.

The vertical components or resources of community are federal or state governments and their agencies, laws, officals etc.; quasi governmental or voluntary International agencies or organisations, their personnel, officers, laws, schemes and programms etc.

1.10 FURTHER READINGS

1. Herbert J. Ruhim and Irene S. Ruhim 2001, Community organising and development, Allyn and Bacon, Massachusetts.

2. Roger Hadlye, Mike cooper and others, 1987, A Community social worker’s handbook, Tavistock publication, London.

3. M.G. Ross, 1955, Community organisation- Theory and practices, Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York.

4. H.Y. Siddiqui, 1997, Working with communities, Hira Publications, New Delhi.

Writer

Prof. Girish Kumar

Former Dean

Faculty of Social Work

M.G. Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi-221002

Resi. : A-12, Teacher’s Flat,

M.G. Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi-221001

Phone : 2223156

***

48 comments:

Shami said...

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TaBiSh said...

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bangaru said...

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mehul said...

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renuka said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
renuka said...

Thank you for putting everything together. Im looking for Gender and Society notes. Can you please guide me on this..

Beulah Emmanuel said...

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Beulah Emmanuel said...

Please add more material about all the topics in Social work including the role of social workers

Suresh Kumar said...

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priya said...

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amu said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
amu said...

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saranya said...

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Role in different modes attitudes and attitude in social action.

saranya said...

Thank you very much this is very helpfull for my studies and i need notes for this sudject can you pls help me to collect notes. I will mention the topic below.

Role in different modes attitudes and attitude in social action.

saranya said...

Thank you very much this is very helpfull for my studies and i need notes for this sudject can you pls help me to collect notes. I will mention the topic below.

Role in different modes attitudes and attitude in social action.

sathish ips said...

Anbu vanakkam aiyya girish kumar avargaley, intha saamuga pani thodarbaana thagavalgalai kuduthatharku enathu manamarntha nanri.....

sathish ips said...

Anbu vanakkam aiyya girish kumar avargaley, intha saamuga pani thodarbaana thagavalgalai kuduthatharku enathu manamarntha nanri.....

rajiselvaraj said...

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rajiselvaraj said...

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rajiselvaraj said...

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udayabaski said...

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pawan kumar said...

thnk u so much sir for providing these notes.

pawan kumar said...

sir plz send 2nd sem social work notes as soon as possible.

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Sawan Kumar Gupt said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Sawan Kumar Gupt said...

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sawan kumar gupt
TISS, Mumbai

Rijumoni Gogoi said...

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priya said...

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Saleem Anar said...


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Antony L' Amalraj said...

Hi everybody I m from Loyola Chennai thanks for providing me this notes on community organisation and if possible could you please upload Social Action Notes.

Antony L' Amalraj said...

Hi everyone thanks for CO notes and please upload and help me Social Action Notes thank you ...

sathia raj said...

Hi Its Nice.....

Its very useful for all....

By MR.SATHIARAJ MSW,Mphil.,

pankaj bansal said...

Social workers plays an important role for development and improvememt in the status of squeeze peoples

aparna kelkar said...

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Snehamitra Welfare Society said...

Helpful Notes... Snehamitra Welfare Society